root/parse.y

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DEFINITIONS

This source file includes following definitions.
  1. DEF_EXPR
  2. DEF_EXPR
  3. DEF_EXPR
  4. DEF_EXPR
  5. DEF_EXPR
  6. DEF_EXPR
  7. DEF_EXPR
  8. DEF_EXPR
  9. DEF_EXPR
  10. DEF_EXPR
  11. DEF_EXPR
  12. DEF_EXPR
  13. DEF_EXPR
  14. vtable_size
  15. vtable_alloc
  16. vtable_free
  17. vtable_add
  18. vtable_pop
  19. vtable_included
  20. ripper_new_yylval
  21. ripper_is_node_yylval
  22. new_args_gen
  23. new_args_tail_gen
  24. ripper_yylval_id
  25. intern_sym
  26. ripper_has_scan_event
  27. ripper_scan_event_val
  28. ripper_dispatch_scan_event
  29. ripper_dispatch_delayed_token
  30. token_info_get_column
  31. token_info_has_nonspaces
  32. token_info_push_gen
  33. token_info_pop_gen
  34. parser_yyerror
  35. debug_lines
  36. coverage
  37. e_option_supplied
  38. yycompile0
  39. yycompile
  40. must_be_ascii_compatible
  41. lex_get_str
  42. lex_getline
  43. parser_compile_string
  44. rb_compile_string
  45. rb_parser_compile_string
  46. rb_parser_compile_string_path
  47. rb_compile_cstr
  48. rb_parser_compile_cstr
  49. lex_io_gets
  50. rb_compile_file
  51. rb_parser_compile_file
  52. rb_parser_compile_file_path
  53. parser_str_new
  54. parser_nextline
  55. parser_cr
  56. parser_nextc
  57. parser_pushback
  58. parser_newtok
  59. parser_tokspace
  60. parser_tokadd
  61. parser_tok_hex
  62. parser_tokadd_utf8
  63. parser_read_escape
  64. parser_tokaddmbc
  65. parser_tokadd_escape
  66. parser_regx_options
  67. dispose_string
  68. parser_tokadd_mbchar
  69. simple_re_meta
  70. parser_update_heredoc_indent
  71. parser_tokadd_string
  72. ripper_flush_string_content
  73. parser_peek_variable_name
  74. parser_parse_string
  75. parser_heredoc_identifier
  76. parser_heredoc_restore
  77. dedent_string
  78. parser_heredoc_dedent
  79. parser_heredoc_dedent
  80. parser_dedent_string
  81. parser_whole_match_p
  82. parser_number_literal_suffix
  83. parser_set_number_literal
  84. parser_set_integer_literal
  85. ripper_dispatch_heredoc_end
  86. parser_here_document
  87. arg_ambiguous_gen
  88. formal_argument_gen
  89. lvar_defined_gen
  90. parser_encode_length
  91. parser_set_encode
  92. comment_at_top
  93. magic_comment_encoding
  94. parser_get_bool
  95. parser_set_token_info
  96. parser_set_compile_option_flag
  97. parser_set_past_scope
  98. magic_comment_marker
  99. parser_magic_comment
  100. set_file_encoding
  101. parser_prepare
  102. parse_rational
  103. parse_numeric
  104. parse_qmark
  105. parse_percent
  106. tokadd_ident
  107. tokenize_ident
  108. parse_numvar
  109. parse_gvar
  110. parse_atmark
  111. parse_ident
  112. parser_yylex
  113. yylex
  114. node_newnode
  115. nodetype
  116. nodeline
  117. newline_node
  118. fixpos
  119. parser_warning
  120. parser_warn
  121. block_append_gen
  122. list_append_gen
  123. list_concat
  124. literal_concat0
  125. literal_concat_gen
  126. evstr2dstr_gen
  127. new_evstr_gen
  128. call_bin_op_gen
  129. call_uni_op_gen
  130. match_op_gen
  131. past_dvar_p
  132. gettable_gen
  133. kwd_append
  134. id_is_var_gen
  135. append_lex_state_name
  136. trace_lex_state
  137. show_bitstack
  138. assignable_gen
  139. is_private_local_id
  140. shadowing_lvar_0
  141. shadowing_lvar_gen
  142. new_bv_gen
  143. aryset_gen
  144. block_dup_check_gen
  145. attrset_gen
  146. rb_backref_error_gen
  147. arg_concat_gen
  148. arg_append_gen
  149. splat_array
  150. node_assign_gen
  151. value_expr_gen
  152. void_expr_gen
  153. void_stmts_gen
  154. remove_begin
  155. remove_begin_all
  156. reduce_nodes_gen
  157. is_static_content
  158. assign_in_cond
  159. warn_unless_e_option
  160. warning_unless_e_option
  161. fixup_nodes
  162. range_op
  163. literal_node
  164. cond0
  165. cond_gen
  166. new_if_gen
  167. logop_gen
  168. no_blockarg
  169. ret_args_gen
  170. new_yield_gen
  171. negate_lit
  172. arg_blk_pass
  173. new_args_gen
  174. new_args_tail_gen
  175. dsym_node_gen
  176. append_literal_keys
  177. remove_duplicate_keys
  178. new_hash_gen
  179. new_op_assign_gen
  180. new_attr_op_assign_gen
  181. new_const_op_assign_gen
  182. new_op_assign_gen
  183. new_attr_op_assign_gen
  184. warn_unused_var
  185. local_push_gen
  186. local_pop_gen
  187. local_tbl_gen
  188. arg_var_gen
  189. local_var_gen
  190. local_id_gen
  191. dyna_push_gen
  192. dyna_pop_vtable
  193. dyna_pop_1
  194. dyna_pop_gen
  195. dyna_in_block_gen
  196. dvar_defined_gen
  197. dvar_curr_gen
  198. reg_fragment_setenc_gen
  199. reg_fragment_check_gen
  200. reg_named_capture_assign_iter
  201. reg_named_capture_assign_gen
  202. parser_reg_compile
  203. reg_compile_gen
  204. rb_parser_reg_compile
  205. rb_parser_append_print
  206. rb_parser_while_loop
  207. rb_init_parse
  208. internal_id_gen
  209. parser_initialize
  210. parser_mark
  211. parser_free
  212. parser_memsize
  213. rb_reserved_word
  214. rb_parser_new
  215. rb_parser_set_context
  216. ripper_error_p
  217. rb_parser_end_seen_p
  218. rb_parser_encoding
  219. rb_parser_get_yydebug
  220. rb_parser_set_yydebug
  221. rb_parser_malloc
  222. rb_parser_calloc
  223. rb_parser_realloc
  224. rb_parser_free
  225. rb_parser_printf
  226. parser_compile_error
  227. ripper_validate_object
  228. ripper_dispatch0
  229. ripper_dispatch1
  230. ripper_dispatch2
  231. ripper_dispatch3
  232. ripper_dispatch4
  233. ripper_dispatch5
  234. ripper_dispatch7
  235. keyword_id_to_str
  236. ripper_id2sym
  237. ripper_get_id
  238. ripper_get_value
  239. ripper_error_gen
  240. ripper_compile_error
  241. ripper_lex_get_generic
  242. ripper_s_allocate
  243. ripper_initialize
  244. ripper_parse0
  245. ripper_ensure
  246. ripper_parse
  247. ripper_column
  248. ripper_filename
  249. ripper_lineno
  250. ripper_assert_Qundef
  251. ripper_value
  252. Init_ripper
  253. InitVM_ripper

/**********************************************************************

  parse.y -

  $Author: nobu $
  created at: Fri May 28 18:02:42 JST 1993

  Copyright (C) 1993-2007 Yukihiro Matsumoto

**********************************************************************/

%{

#if !YYPURE
# error needs pure parser
#endif
#ifndef PARSER_DEBUG
#define PARSER_DEBUG 0
#endif
#define YYDEBUG 1
#define YYERROR_VERBOSE 1
#define YYSTACK_USE_ALLOCA 0

#include "ruby/ruby.h"
#include "ruby/st.h"
#include "ruby/encoding.h"
#include "internal.h"
#include "node.h"
#include "parse.h"
#include "symbol.h"
#include "regenc.h"
#include <stdio.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include "probes.h"

#ifndef WARN_PAST_SCOPE
# define WARN_PAST_SCOPE 0
#endif

#define TAB_WIDTH 8

#define YYMALLOC(size)          rb_parser_malloc(parser, (size))
#define YYREALLOC(ptr, size)    rb_parser_realloc(parser, (ptr), (size))
#define YYCALLOC(nelem, size)   rb_parser_calloc(parser, (nelem), (size))
#define YYFREE(ptr)             rb_parser_free(parser, (ptr))
#define YYFPRINTF               rb_parser_printf
#if defined YYLTYPE_IS_TRIVIAL && YYLTYPE_IS_TRIVIAL
# define YY_LOCATION_PRINT(File, Loc) \
     rb_parser_printf(parser, "%d.%d-%d.%d", \
                      (Loc).first_line, (Loc).first_column, \
                      (Loc).last_line,  (Loc).last_column)
#endif
#undef malloc
#undef realloc
#undef calloc
#undef free
#define malloc  YYMALLOC
#define realloc YYREALLOC
#define calloc  YYCALLOC
#define free    YYFREE

enum lex_state_bits {
    EXPR_BEG_bit,               /* ignore newline, +/- is a sign. */
    EXPR_END_bit,               /* newline significant, +/- is an operator. */
    EXPR_ENDARG_bit,            /* ditto, and unbound braces. */
    EXPR_ENDFN_bit,             /* ditto, and unbound braces. */
    EXPR_ARG_bit,               /* newline significant, +/- is an operator. */
    EXPR_CMDARG_bit,            /* newline significant, +/- is an operator. */
    EXPR_MID_bit,               /* newline significant, +/- is an operator. */
    EXPR_FNAME_bit,             /* ignore newline, no reserved words. */
    EXPR_DOT_bit,               /* right after `.' or `::', no reserved words. */
    EXPR_CLASS_bit,             /* immediate after `class', no here document. */
    EXPR_LABEL_bit,             /* flag bit, label is allowed. */
    EXPR_LABELED_bit,           /* flag bit, just after a label. */
    EXPR_FITEM_bit,             /* symbol literal as FNAME. */
    EXPR_MAX_STATE
};
/* examine combinations */
enum lex_state_e {
#define DEF_EXPR(n) EXPR_##n = (1 << EXPR_##n##_bit)
    DEF_EXPR(BEG),
    DEF_EXPR(END),
    DEF_EXPR(ENDARG),
    DEF_EXPR(ENDFN),
    DEF_EXPR(ARG),
    DEF_EXPR(CMDARG),
    DEF_EXPR(MID),
    DEF_EXPR(FNAME),
    DEF_EXPR(DOT),
    DEF_EXPR(CLASS),
    DEF_EXPR(LABEL),
    DEF_EXPR(LABELED),
    DEF_EXPR(FITEM),
    EXPR_VALUE = EXPR_BEG,
    EXPR_BEG_ANY  =  (EXPR_BEG | EXPR_MID | EXPR_CLASS),
    EXPR_ARG_ANY  =  (EXPR_ARG | EXPR_CMDARG),
    EXPR_END_ANY  =  (EXPR_END | EXPR_ENDARG | EXPR_ENDFN)
};
#define IS_lex_state_for(x, ls) ((x) & (ls))
#define IS_lex_state_all_for(x, ls) (((x) & (ls)) == (ls))
#define IS_lex_state(ls)        IS_lex_state_for(lex_state, (ls))
#define IS_lex_state_all(ls)    IS_lex_state_all_for(lex_state, (ls))

# define SET_LEX_STATE(ls) \
    (lex_state = (yydebug ? trace_lex_state(lex_state, (ls), __LINE__) : \
                  (enum lex_state_e)(ls)))
static enum lex_state_e trace_lex_state(enum lex_state_e from, enum lex_state_e to, int line);

typedef VALUE stack_type;

static void show_bitstack(stack_type, const char *, int);
# define SHOW_BITSTACK(stack, name) (yydebug ? show_bitstack(stack, name, __LINE__) : (void)0)
# define BITSTACK_PUSH(stack, n) (((stack) = ((stack)<<1)|((n)&1)), SHOW_BITSTACK(stack, #stack"(push)"))
# define BITSTACK_POP(stack)     (((stack) = (stack) >> 1), SHOW_BITSTACK(stack, #stack"(pop)"))
# define BITSTACK_LEXPOP(stack)  (((stack) = ((stack) >> 1) | ((stack) & 1)), SHOW_BITSTACK(stack, #stack"(lexpop)"))
# define BITSTACK_SET_P(stack)   (SHOW_BITSTACK(stack, #stack), (stack)&1)
# define BITSTACK_SET(stack, n)  ((stack)=(n), SHOW_BITSTACK(stack, #stack"(set)"))

#define COND_PUSH(n)    BITSTACK_PUSH(cond_stack, (n))
#define COND_POP()      BITSTACK_POP(cond_stack)
#define COND_LEXPOP()   BITSTACK_LEXPOP(cond_stack)
#define COND_P()        BITSTACK_SET_P(cond_stack)
#define COND_SET(n)     BITSTACK_SET(cond_stack, (n))

#define CMDARG_PUSH(n)  BITSTACK_PUSH(cmdarg_stack, (n))
#define CMDARG_POP()    BITSTACK_POP(cmdarg_stack)
#define CMDARG_LEXPOP() BITSTACK_LEXPOP(cmdarg_stack)
#define CMDARG_P()      BITSTACK_SET_P(cmdarg_stack)
#define CMDARG_SET(n)   BITSTACK_SET(cmdarg_stack, (n))

struct vtable {
    ID *tbl;
    int pos;
    int capa;
    struct vtable *prev;
};

struct local_vars {
    struct vtable *args;
    struct vtable *vars;
    struct vtable *used;
# if WARN_PAST_SCOPE
    struct vtable *past;
# endif
    struct local_vars *prev;
    stack_type cmdargs;
};

#define DVARS_INHERIT ((void*)1)
#define DVARS_TOPSCOPE NULL
#define DVARS_SPECIAL_P(tbl) (!POINTER_P(tbl))
#define POINTER_P(val) ((VALUE)(val) & ~(VALUE)3)

static int
vtable_size(const struct vtable *tbl)
{
    if (POINTER_P(tbl)) {
        return tbl->pos;
    }
    else {
        return 0;
    }
}

#define VTBL_DEBUG 0

static struct vtable *
vtable_alloc(struct vtable *prev)
{
    struct vtable *tbl = ALLOC(struct vtable);
    tbl->pos = 0;
    tbl->capa = 8;
    tbl->tbl = ALLOC_N(ID, tbl->capa);
    tbl->prev = prev;
    if (VTBL_DEBUG) printf("vtable_alloc: %p\n", (void *)tbl);
    return tbl;
}

static void
vtable_free(struct vtable *tbl)
{
    if (VTBL_DEBUG)printf("vtable_free: %p\n", (void *)tbl);
    if (POINTER_P(tbl)) {
        if (tbl->tbl) {
            xfree(tbl->tbl);
        }
        xfree(tbl);
    }
}

static void
vtable_add(struct vtable *tbl, ID id)
{
    if (!POINTER_P(tbl)) {
        rb_bug("vtable_add: vtable is not allocated (%p)", (void *)tbl);
    }
    if (VTBL_DEBUG) printf("vtable_add: %p, %"PRIsVALUE"\n", (void *)tbl, rb_id2str(id));

    if (tbl->pos == tbl->capa) {
        tbl->capa = tbl->capa * 2;
        REALLOC_N(tbl->tbl, ID, tbl->capa);
    }
    tbl->tbl[tbl->pos++] = id;
}

#ifndef RIPPER
static void
vtable_pop(struct vtable *tbl, int n)
{
    if (tbl->pos < n) rb_bug("vtable_pop: unreachable");
    tbl->pos -= n;
}
#endif

static int
vtable_included(const struct vtable * tbl, ID id)
{
    int i;

    if (POINTER_P(tbl)) {
        for (i = 0; i < tbl->pos; i++) {
            if (tbl->tbl[i] == id) {
                return i+1;
            }
        }
    }
    return 0;
}

typedef struct rb_block_struct rb_block_t;

typedef struct token_info {
    const char *token;
    int linenum;
    int column;
    int nonspc;
    struct token_info *next;
} token_info;

/*
    Structure of Lexer Buffer:

 lex_pbeg      tokp         lex_p        lex_pend
    |           |              |            |
    |-----------+--------------+------------|
                |<------------>|
                     token
*/
struct parser_params {
    NODE *heap;

    YYSTYPE *lval;

    struct {
        NODE *strterm;
        VALUE (*gets)(struct parser_params*,VALUE);
        VALUE input;
        VALUE lastline;
        VALUE nextline;
        const char *pbeg;
        const char *pcur;
        const char *pend;
        long gets_ptr;
        enum lex_state_e state;
        int paren_nest;
        int lpar_beg;
        int brace_nest;
    } lex;
    stack_type cond_stack;
    stack_type cmdarg_stack;
    int tokidx;
    int toksiz;
    int tokline;
    int heredoc_end;
    int heredoc_indent;
    int heredoc_line_indent;
    char *tokenbuf;
    NODE *deferred_nodes;
    struct local_vars *lvtbl;
    int line_count;
    int ruby_sourceline;        /* current line no. */
    char *ruby_sourcefile; /* current source file */
    VALUE ruby_sourcefile_string;
    rb_encoding *enc;
    token_info *token_info;
    VALUE compile_option;

    VALUE debug_buffer;

    ID cur_arg;

    unsigned int command_start:1;
    unsigned int eofp: 1;
    unsigned int ruby__end__seen: 1;
    unsigned int yydebug: 1;
    unsigned int has_shebang: 1;
    unsigned int in_defined: 1;
    unsigned int in_main: 1;
    unsigned int in_kwarg: 1;
    unsigned int in_single: 1;
    unsigned int in_def: 1;
    unsigned int token_seen: 1;
    unsigned int token_info_enabled: 1;
# if WARN_PAST_SCOPE
    unsigned int past_scope_enabled: 1;
# endif
    unsigned int error_p: 1;
    unsigned int cr_seen: 1;

#ifndef RIPPER
    /* Ruby core only */

    NODE *eval_tree_begin;
    NODE *eval_tree;
    VALUE error_buffer;
    VALUE debug_lines;
    VALUE coverage;
    const rb_block_t *base_block;
#else
    /* Ripper only */

    const char *tokp;
    VALUE delayed;
    int delayed_line;
    int delayed_col;

    VALUE value;
    VALUE result;
    VALUE parsing_thread;
#endif
};

#ifdef RIPPER
#define intern_cstr(n,l,en) rb_intern3(n,l,en)
#else
#define intern_cstr(n,l,en) rb_intern3(n,l,en)
#endif

#define STR_NEW(p,n) rb_enc_str_new((p),(n),current_enc)
#define STR_NEW0() rb_enc_str_new(0,0,current_enc)
#define STR_NEW2(p) rb_enc_str_new((p),strlen(p),current_enc)
#define STR_NEW3(p,n,e,func) parser_str_new((p),(n),(e),(func),current_enc)
#define TOK_INTERN() intern_cstr(tok(), toklen(), current_enc)

static int parser_yyerror(struct parser_params*, const char*);
#define yyerror(msg) parser_yyerror(parser, (msg))

#define lex_strterm             (parser->lex.strterm)
#define lex_state               (parser->lex.state)
#define cond_stack              (parser->cond_stack)
#define cmdarg_stack            (parser->cmdarg_stack)
#define paren_nest              (parser->lex.paren_nest)
#define lpar_beg                (parser->lex.lpar_beg)
#define brace_nest              (parser->lex.brace_nest)
#define in_single               (parser->in_single)
#define in_def                  (parser->in_def)
#define in_main                 (parser->in_main)
#define in_defined              (parser->in_defined)
#define tokenbuf                (parser->tokenbuf)
#define tokidx                  (parser->tokidx)
#define toksiz                  (parser->toksiz)
#define tokline                 (parser->tokline)
#define lex_input               (parser->lex.input)
#define lex_lastline            (parser->lex.lastline)
#define lex_nextline            (parser->lex.nextline)
#define lex_pbeg                (parser->lex.pbeg)
#define lex_p                   (parser->lex.pcur)
#define lex_pend                (parser->lex.pend)
#define heredoc_end             (parser->heredoc_end)
#define heredoc_indent          (parser->heredoc_indent)
#define heredoc_line_indent     (parser->heredoc_line_indent)
#define command_start           (parser->command_start)
#define deferred_nodes          (parser->deferred_nodes)
#define lex_gets_ptr            (parser->lex.gets_ptr)
#define lex_gets                (parser->lex.gets)
#define lvtbl                   (parser->lvtbl)
#define ruby__end__seen         (parser->ruby__end__seen)
#define ruby_sourceline         (parser->ruby_sourceline)
#define ruby_sourcefile         (parser->ruby_sourcefile)
#define ruby_sourcefile_string  (parser->ruby_sourcefile_string)
#define current_enc             (parser->enc)
#define current_arg             (parser->cur_arg)
#define yydebug                 (parser->yydebug)
#ifdef RIPPER
#define compile_for_eval        (0)
#else
#define compile_for_eval        (parser->base_block != 0 && !in_main)
#define ruby_eval_tree          (parser->eval_tree)
#define ruby_eval_tree_begin    (parser->eval_tree_begin)
#define ruby_debug_lines        (parser->debug_lines)
#define ruby_coverage           (parser->coverage)
#endif

#define CALL_Q_P(q) ((q) == tANDDOT)
#define NODE_CALL_Q(q) (CALL_Q_P(q) ? NODE_QCALL : NODE_CALL)
#define NEW_QCALL(q,r,m,a) NEW_NODE(NODE_CALL_Q(q),r,m,a)

static int yylex(YYSTYPE*, struct parser_params*);

#ifndef RIPPER
#define yyparse ruby_yyparse

static NODE* node_newnode(struct parser_params *, enum node_type, VALUE, VALUE, VALUE);
#define rb_node_newnode(type, a1, a2, a3) node_newnode(parser, (type), (a1), (a2), (a3))

static NODE *cond_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*);
#define cond(node) cond_gen(parser, (node))
static NODE *new_if_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,NODE*,NODE*);
#define new_if(cc,left,right) new_if_gen(parser, (cc), (left), (right))
#define new_unless(cc,left,right) new_if_gen(parser, (cc), (right), (left))
static NODE *logop_gen(struct parser_params*,enum node_type,NODE*,NODE*);
#define logop(type,node1,node2) logop_gen(parser, (type), (node1), (node2))

static NODE *newline_node(NODE*);
static void fixpos(NODE*,NODE*);

static int value_expr_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*);
static void void_expr_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*);
static NODE *remove_begin(NODE*);
static NODE *remove_begin_all(NODE*);
#define value_expr(node) value_expr_gen(parser, (node) = remove_begin(node))
#define void_expr0(node) void_expr_gen(parser, (node))
#define void_expr(node) void_expr0((node) = remove_begin(node))
static void void_stmts_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*);
#define void_stmts(node) void_stmts_gen(parser, (node))
static void reduce_nodes_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE**);
#define reduce_nodes(n) reduce_nodes_gen(parser,(n))
static void block_dup_check_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,NODE*);
#define block_dup_check(n1,n2) block_dup_check_gen(parser,(n1),(n2))

static NODE *block_append_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,NODE*);
#define block_append(h,t) block_append_gen(parser,(h),(t))
static NODE *list_append_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,NODE*);
#define list_append(l,i) list_append_gen(parser,(l),(i))
static NODE *list_concat(NODE*,NODE*);
static NODE *arg_append_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,NODE*);
#define arg_append(h,t) arg_append_gen(parser,(h),(t))
static NODE *arg_concat_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,NODE*);
#define arg_concat(h,t) arg_concat_gen(parser,(h),(t))
static NODE *literal_concat_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,NODE*);
#define literal_concat(h,t) literal_concat_gen(parser,(h),(t))
static int literal_concat0(struct parser_params *, VALUE, VALUE);
static NODE *new_evstr_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*);
#define new_evstr(n) new_evstr_gen(parser,(n))
static NODE *evstr2dstr_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*);
#define evstr2dstr(n) evstr2dstr_gen(parser,(n))
static NODE *splat_array(NODE*);

static NODE *call_bin_op_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,ID,NODE*);
#define call_bin_op(recv,id,arg1) call_bin_op_gen(parser, (recv),(id),(arg1))
static NODE *call_uni_op_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,ID);
#define call_uni_op(recv,id) call_uni_op_gen(parser, (recv),(id))

static NODE *new_args_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,NODE*,ID,NODE*,NODE*);
#define new_args(f,o,r,p,t) new_args_gen(parser, (f),(o),(r),(p),(t))
static NODE *new_args_tail_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,ID,ID);
#define new_args_tail(k,kr,b) new_args_tail_gen(parser, (k),(kr),(b))
#define new_kw_arg(k) ((k) ? NEW_KW_ARG(0, (k)) : 0)

static VALUE negate_lit(VALUE);
static NODE *ret_args_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*);
#define ret_args(node) ret_args_gen(parser, (node))
static NODE *arg_blk_pass(NODE*,NODE*);
static NODE *new_yield_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*);
#define new_yield(node) new_yield_gen(parser, (node))
static NODE *dsym_node_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*);
#define dsym_node(node) dsym_node_gen(parser, (node))

static NODE *gettable_gen(struct parser_params*,ID);
#define gettable(id) gettable_gen(parser,(id))
static NODE *assignable_gen(struct parser_params*,ID,NODE*);
#define assignable(id,node) assignable_gen(parser, (id), (node))

static NODE *aryset_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,NODE*);
#define aryset(node1,node2) aryset_gen(parser, (node1), (node2))
static NODE *attrset_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,ID,ID);
#define attrset(node,q,id) attrset_gen(parser, (node), (q), (id))

static void rb_backref_error_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*);
#define rb_backref_error(n) rb_backref_error_gen(parser,(n))
static NODE *node_assign_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,NODE*);
#define node_assign(node1, node2) node_assign_gen(parser, (node1), (node2))

static NODE *new_op_assign_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *lhs, ID op, NODE *rhs);
static NODE *new_attr_op_assign_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *lhs, ID atype, ID attr, ID op, NODE *rhs);
#define new_attr_op_assign(lhs, type, attr, op, rhs) new_attr_op_assign_gen(parser, (lhs), (type), (attr), (op), (rhs))
static NODE *new_const_op_assign_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *lhs, ID op, NODE *rhs);
#define new_const_op_assign(lhs, op, rhs) new_const_op_assign_gen(parser, (lhs), (op), (rhs))

static NODE *kwd_append(NODE*, NODE*);

static NODE *new_hash_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *hash);
#define new_hash(hash) new_hash_gen(parser, (hash))

#define new_defined(expr) NEW_DEFINED(remove_begin_all(expr))

static NODE *match_op_gen(struct parser_params*,NODE*,NODE*);
#define match_op(node1,node2) match_op_gen(parser, (node1), (node2))

static ID  *local_tbl_gen(struct parser_params*);
#define local_tbl() local_tbl_gen(parser)

static void fixup_nodes(NODE **);

static VALUE reg_compile_gen(struct parser_params*, VALUE, int);
#define reg_compile(str,options) reg_compile_gen(parser, (str), (options))
static void reg_fragment_setenc_gen(struct parser_params*, VALUE, int);
#define reg_fragment_setenc(str,options) reg_fragment_setenc_gen(parser, (str), (options))
static int reg_fragment_check_gen(struct parser_params*, VALUE, int);
#define reg_fragment_check(str,options) reg_fragment_check_gen(parser, (str), (options))
static NODE *reg_named_capture_assign_gen(struct parser_params* parser, VALUE regexp);
#define reg_named_capture_assign(regexp) reg_named_capture_assign_gen(parser,(regexp))

static void parser_heredoc_dedent(struct parser_params*,NODE*);
# define heredoc_dedent(str) parser_heredoc_dedent(parser, (str))

#define get_id(id) (id)
#define get_value(val) (val)
#else
#define NODE_RIPPER NODE_CDECL

static inline VALUE
ripper_new_yylval(ID a, VALUE b, VALUE c)
{
    return (VALUE)NEW_CDECL(a, b, c);
}

static inline int
ripper_is_node_yylval(VALUE n)
{
    return RB_TYPE_P(n, T_NODE) && nd_type(RNODE(n)) == NODE_RIPPER;
}

#define value_expr(node) ((void)(node))
#define remove_begin(node) (node)
#define rb_dvar_defined(id, base) 0
#define rb_local_defined(id, base) 0
static ID ripper_get_id(VALUE);
#define get_id(id) ripper_get_id(id)
static VALUE ripper_get_value(VALUE);
#define get_value(val) ripper_get_value(val)
static VALUE assignable_gen(struct parser_params*,VALUE);
#define assignable(lhs,node) assignable_gen(parser, (lhs))
static int id_is_var_gen(struct parser_params *parser, ID id);
#define id_is_var(id) id_is_var_gen(parser, (id))

#define node_assign(node1, node2) dispatch2(assign, (node1), (node2))

static VALUE new_op_assign_gen(struct parser_params *parser, VALUE lhs, VALUE op, VALUE rhs);
static VALUE new_attr_op_assign_gen(struct parser_params *parser, VALUE lhs, VALUE type, VALUE attr, VALUE op, VALUE rhs);
#define new_attr_op_assign(lhs, type, attr, op, rhs) new_attr_op_assign_gen(parser, (lhs), (type), (attr), (op), (rhs))

#endif /* !RIPPER */

#define new_op_assign(lhs, op, rhs) new_op_assign_gen(parser, (lhs), (op), (rhs))

RUBY_FUNC_EXPORTED VALUE rb_parser_reg_compile(struct parser_params* parser, VALUE str, int options, VALUE *errmsg);

static ID formal_argument_gen(struct parser_params*, ID);
#define formal_argument(id) formal_argument_gen(parser, (id))
static ID shadowing_lvar_gen(struct parser_params*,ID);
#define shadowing_lvar(name) shadowing_lvar_gen(parser, (name))
static void new_bv_gen(struct parser_params*,ID);
#define new_bv(id) new_bv_gen(parser, (id))

static void local_push_gen(struct parser_params*,int);
#define local_push(top) local_push_gen(parser,(top))
static void local_pop_gen(struct parser_params*);
#define local_pop() local_pop_gen(parser)
static void local_var_gen(struct parser_params*, ID);
#define local_var(id) local_var_gen(parser, (id))
static void arg_var_gen(struct parser_params*, ID);
#define arg_var(id) arg_var_gen(parser, (id))
static int  local_id_gen(struct parser_params*, ID);
#define local_id(id) local_id_gen(parser, (id))
static ID   internal_id_gen(struct parser_params*);
#define internal_id() internal_id_gen(parser)

static const struct vtable *dyna_push_gen(struct parser_params *);
#define dyna_push() dyna_push_gen(parser)
static void dyna_pop_gen(struct parser_params*, const struct vtable *);
#define dyna_pop(node) dyna_pop_gen(parser, (node))
static int dyna_in_block_gen(struct parser_params*);
#define dyna_in_block() dyna_in_block_gen(parser)
#define dyna_var(id) local_var(id)
static int dvar_defined_gen(struct parser_params*,ID,int);
#define dvar_defined(id) dvar_defined_gen(parser, (id), 0)
#define dvar_defined_get(id) dvar_defined_gen(parser, (id), 1)
static int dvar_curr_gen(struct parser_params*,ID);
#define dvar_curr(id) dvar_curr_gen(parser, (id))

static int lvar_defined_gen(struct parser_params*, ID);
#define lvar_defined(id) lvar_defined_gen(parser, (id))

#define RE_OPTION_ONCE (1<<16)
#define RE_OPTION_ENCODING_SHIFT 8
#define RE_OPTION_ENCODING(e) (((e)&0xff)<<RE_OPTION_ENCODING_SHIFT)
#define RE_OPTION_ENCODING_IDX(o) (((o)>>RE_OPTION_ENCODING_SHIFT)&0xff)
#define RE_OPTION_ENCODING_NONE(o) ((o)&RE_OPTION_ARG_ENCODING_NONE)
#define RE_OPTION_MASK  0xff
#define RE_OPTION_ARG_ENCODING_NONE 32

#define NODE_STRTERM NODE_ZARRAY        /* nothing to gc */
#define NODE_HEREDOC NODE_ARRAY         /* 1, 3 to gc */
#define SIGN_EXTEND(x,n) (((1<<(n)-1)^((x)&~(~0<<(n))))-(1<<(n)-1))
#define nd_func u1.id
#if SIZEOF_SHORT == 2
#define nd_term(node) ((signed short)(node)->u2.id)
#else
#define nd_term(node) SIGN_EXTEND((node)->u2.id, CHAR_BIT*2)
#endif
#define nd_paren(node) (char)((node)->u2.id >> CHAR_BIT*2)
#define nd_nest u3.cnt

/****** Ripper *******/

#ifdef RIPPER
#define RIPPER_VERSION "0.1.0"

static inline VALUE intern_sym(const char *name);

#include "eventids1.c"
#include "eventids2.c"

static VALUE ripper_dispatch0(struct parser_params*,ID);
static VALUE ripper_dispatch1(struct parser_params*,ID,VALUE);
static VALUE ripper_dispatch2(struct parser_params*,ID,VALUE,VALUE);
static VALUE ripper_dispatch3(struct parser_params*,ID,VALUE,VALUE,VALUE);
static VALUE ripper_dispatch4(struct parser_params*,ID,VALUE,VALUE,VALUE,VALUE);
static VALUE ripper_dispatch5(struct parser_params*,ID,VALUE,VALUE,VALUE,VALUE,VALUE);
static VALUE ripper_dispatch7(struct parser_params*,ID,VALUE,VALUE,VALUE,VALUE,VALUE,VALUE,VALUE);
static void ripper_error_gen(struct parser_params *parser);
#define ripper_error() ripper_error_gen(parser)

#define dispatch0(n)            ripper_dispatch0(parser, TOKEN_PASTE(ripper_id_, n))
#define dispatch1(n,a)          ripper_dispatch1(parser, TOKEN_PASTE(ripper_id_, n), (a))
#define dispatch2(n,a,b)        ripper_dispatch2(parser, TOKEN_PASTE(ripper_id_, n), (a), (b))
#define dispatch3(n,a,b,c)      ripper_dispatch3(parser, TOKEN_PASTE(ripper_id_, n), (a), (b), (c))
#define dispatch4(n,a,b,c,d)    ripper_dispatch4(parser, TOKEN_PASTE(ripper_id_, n), (a), (b), (c), (d))
#define dispatch5(n,a,b,c,d,e)  ripper_dispatch5(parser, TOKEN_PASTE(ripper_id_, n), (a), (b), (c), (d), (e))
#define dispatch7(n,a,b,c,d,e,f,g) ripper_dispatch7(parser, TOKEN_PASTE(ripper_id_, n), (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g))

#define yyparse ripper_yyparse

#define ripper_intern(s) ID2SYM(rb_intern(s))
static VALUE ripper_id2sym(ID);
#ifdef __GNUC__
#define ripper_id2sym(id) (rb_ispunct((int)(id)) ? \
                           ID2SYM(id) : ripper_id2sym(id))
#endif

#define arg_new() dispatch0(args_new)
#define arg_add(l,a) dispatch2(args_add, (l), (a))
#define arg_add_star(l,a) dispatch2(args_add_star, (l), (a))
#define arg_add_block(l,b) dispatch2(args_add_block, (l), (b))
#define arg_add_optblock(l,b) ((b)==Qundef? (l) : dispatch2(args_add_block, (l), (b)))
#define bare_assoc(v) dispatch1(bare_assoc_hash, (v))
#define arg_add_assocs(l,b) arg_add((l), bare_assoc(b))

#define args2mrhs(a) dispatch1(mrhs_new_from_args, (a))
#define mrhs_new() dispatch0(mrhs_new)
#define mrhs_add(l,a) dispatch2(mrhs_add, (l), (a))
#define mrhs_add_star(l,a) dispatch2(mrhs_add_star, (l), (a))

#define mlhs_new() dispatch0(mlhs_new)
#define mlhs_add(l,a) dispatch2(mlhs_add, (l), (a))
#define mlhs_add_star(l,a) dispatch2(mlhs_add_star, (l), (a))

#define params_new(pars, opts, rest, pars2, kws, kwrest, blk) \
        dispatch7(params, (pars), (opts), (rest), (pars2), (kws), (kwrest), (blk))

#define blockvar_new(p,v) dispatch2(block_var, (p), (v))
#define blockvar_add_star(l,a) dispatch2(block_var_add_star, (l), (a))
#define blockvar_add_block(l,a) dispatch2(block_var_add_block, (l), (a))

#define method_optarg(m,a) ((a)==Qundef ? (m) : dispatch2(method_add_arg,(m),(a)))
#define method_arg(m,a) dispatch2(method_add_arg,(m),(a))
#define method_add_block(m,b) dispatch2(method_add_block, (m), (b))

#define escape_Qundef(x) ((x)==Qundef ? Qnil : (x))

static inline VALUE
new_args_gen(struct parser_params *parser, VALUE f, VALUE o, VALUE r, VALUE p, VALUE tail)
{
    NODE *t = (NODE *)tail;
    VALUE k = t->u1.value, kr = t->u2.value, b = t->u3.value;
    return params_new(f, o, r, p, k, kr, escape_Qundef(b));
}
#define new_args(f,o,r,p,t) new_args_gen(parser, (f),(o),(r),(p),(t))

static inline VALUE
new_args_tail_gen(struct parser_params *parser, VALUE k, VALUE kr, VALUE b)
{
    return (VALUE)MEMO_NEW(k, kr, b);
}
#define new_args_tail(k,kr,b) new_args_tail_gen(parser, (k),(kr),(b))

#define new_defined(expr) dispatch1(defined, (expr))

static void parser_heredoc_dedent(struct parser_params*,VALUE);
# define heredoc_dedent(str) parser_heredoc_dedent(parser, (str))

#define FIXME 0

#endif /* RIPPER */

#ifndef RIPPER
# define Qnone 0
# define ifndef_ripper(x) (x)
#else
# define Qnone Qnil
# define ifndef_ripper(x)
#endif

# define rb_warn0(fmt)         WARN_CALL(WARN_ARGS(fmt, 1))
# define rb_warn1(fmt,a)       WARN_CALL(WARN_ARGS(fmt, 2), (a))
# define rb_warn2(fmt,a,b)     WARN_CALL(WARN_ARGS(fmt, 3), (a), (b))
# define rb_warn3(fmt,a,b,c)   WARN_CALL(WARN_ARGS(fmt, 4), (a), (b), (c))
# define rb_warn4(fmt,a,b,c,d) WARN_CALL(WARN_ARGS(fmt, 5), (a), (b), (c), (d))
# define rb_warning0(fmt)         WARNING_CALL(WARNING_ARGS(fmt, 1))
# define rb_warning1(fmt,a)       WARNING_CALL(WARNING_ARGS(fmt, 2), (a))
# define rb_warning2(fmt,a,b)     WARNING_CALL(WARNING_ARGS(fmt, 3), (a), (b))
# define rb_warning3(fmt,a,b,c)   WARNING_CALL(WARNING_ARGS(fmt, 4), (a), (b), (c))
# define rb_warning4(fmt,a,b,c,d) WARNING_CALL(WARNING_ARGS(fmt, 5), (a), (b), (c), (d))
# define rb_warn0L(l,fmt)         WARN_CALL(WARN_ARGS_L(l, fmt, 1))
# define rb_warn1L(l,fmt,a)       WARN_CALL(WARN_ARGS_L(l, fmt, 2), (a))
# define rb_warn2L(l,fmt,a,b)     WARN_CALL(WARN_ARGS_L(l, fmt, 3), (a), (b))
# define rb_warn3L(l,fmt,a,b,c)   WARN_CALL(WARN_ARGS_L(l, fmt, 4), (a), (b), (c))
# define rb_warn4L(l,fmt,a,b,c,d) WARN_CALL(WARN_ARGS_L(l, fmt, 5), (a), (b), (c), (d))
# define rb_warning0L(l,fmt)         WARNING_CALL(WARNING_ARGS_L(l, fmt, 1))
# define rb_warning1L(l,fmt,a)       WARNING_CALL(WARNING_ARGS_L(l, fmt, 2), (a))
# define rb_warning2L(l,fmt,a,b)     WARNING_CALL(WARNING_ARGS_L(l, fmt, 3), (a), (b))
# define rb_warning3L(l,fmt,a,b,c)   WARNING_CALL(WARNING_ARGS_L(l, fmt, 4), (a), (b), (c))
# define rb_warning4L(l,fmt,a,b,c,d) WARNING_CALL(WARNING_ARGS_L(l, fmt, 5), (a), (b), (c), (d))
#ifdef RIPPER
static ID id_warn, id_warning;
# define WARN_S(s) STR_NEW2(s)
# define WARN_I(i) INT2NUM(i)
# define PRIsWARN "s"
# define WARN_ARGS(fmt,n) parser->value, id_warn, n, rb_usascii_str_new_lit(fmt)
# define WARN_ARGS_L(l,fmt,n) WARN_ARGS(fmt,n)
# define WARN_CALL rb_funcall
# define WARNING_ARGS(fmt,n) parser->value, id_warning, n, rb_usascii_str_new_lit(fmt)
# define WARNING_ARGS_L(l, fmt,n) WARNING_ARGS(fmt,n)
# define WARNING_CALL rb_funcall
static void ripper_compile_error(struct parser_params*, const char *fmt, ...);
# define compile_error ripper_compile_error
# define PARSER_ARG parser,
#else
# define WARN_S(s) s
# define WARN_I(i) i
# define PRIsWARN PRIsVALUE
# define WARN_ARGS(fmt,n) WARN_ARGS_L(ruby_sourceline,fmt,n)
# define WARN_ARGS_L(l,fmt,n) ruby_sourcefile, (l), (fmt)
# define WARN_CALL rb_compile_warn
# define WARNING_ARGS(fmt,n) WARN_ARGS(fmt,n)
# define WARNING_ARGS_L(l,fmt,n) WARN_ARGS_L(l,fmt,n)
# define WARNING_CALL rb_compile_warning
static void parser_compile_error(struct parser_params*, const char *fmt, ...);
# define compile_error parser_compile_error
# define PARSER_ARG parser,
#endif

/* Older versions of Yacc set YYMAXDEPTH to a very low value by default (150,
   for instance).  This is too low for Ruby to parse some files, such as
   date/format.rb, therefore bump the value up to at least Bison's default. */
#ifdef OLD_YACC
#ifndef YYMAXDEPTH
#define YYMAXDEPTH 10000
#endif
#endif

static void token_info_push_gen(struct parser_params*, const char *token, size_t len);
static void token_info_pop_gen(struct parser_params*, const char *token, size_t len);
#define token_info_push(token) token_info_push_gen(parser, (token), rb_strlen_lit(token))
#define token_info_pop(token) token_info_pop_gen(parser, (token), rb_strlen_lit(token))
%}

%pure-parser
%lex-param {struct parser_params *parser}
%parse-param {struct parser_params *parser}

%union {
    VALUE val;
    NODE *node;
    ID id;
    int num;
    const struct vtable *vars;
}

/*%%%*/
%token
/*%
%token <val>
%*/
        keyword_class
        keyword_module
        keyword_def
        keyword_undef
        keyword_begin
        keyword_rescue
        keyword_ensure
        keyword_end
        keyword_if
        keyword_unless
        keyword_then
        keyword_elsif
        keyword_else
        keyword_case
        keyword_when
        keyword_while
        keyword_until
        keyword_for
        keyword_break
        keyword_next
        keyword_redo
        keyword_retry
        keyword_in
        keyword_do
        keyword_do_cond
        keyword_do_block
        keyword_do_LAMBDA
        keyword_return
        keyword_yield
        keyword_super
        keyword_self
        keyword_nil
        keyword_true
        keyword_false
        keyword_and
        keyword_or
        keyword_not
        modifier_if
        modifier_unless
        modifier_while
        modifier_until
        modifier_rescue
        keyword_alias
        keyword_defined
        keyword_BEGIN
        keyword_END
        keyword__LINE__
        keyword__FILE__
        keyword__ENCODING__

%token <id>   tIDENTIFIER tFID tGVAR tIVAR tCONSTANT tCVAR tLABEL
%token <node> tINTEGER tFLOAT tRATIONAL tIMAGINARY tSTRING_CONTENT tCHAR
%token <node> tNTH_REF tBACK_REF
%token <num>  tREGEXP_END

%type <node> singleton strings string string1 xstring regexp
%type <node> string_contents xstring_contents regexp_contents string_content
%type <node> words symbols symbol_list qwords qsymbols word_list qword_list qsym_list word
%type <node> literal numeric simple_numeric dsym cpath
%type <node> top_compstmt top_stmts top_stmt
%type <node> bodystmt compstmt stmts stmt_or_begin stmt expr arg primary command command_call method_call
%type <node> expr_value arg_value primary_value fcall
%type <node> if_tail opt_else case_body cases opt_rescue exc_list exc_var opt_ensure
%type <node> args call_args opt_call_args
%type <node> paren_args opt_paren_args args_tail opt_args_tail block_args_tail opt_block_args_tail
%type <node> command_args aref_args opt_block_arg block_arg var_ref var_lhs
%type <node> command_asgn mrhs mrhs_arg superclass block_call block_command
%type <node> f_block_optarg f_block_opt
%type <node> f_arglist f_args f_arg f_arg_item f_optarg f_marg f_marg_list f_margs
%type <node> assoc_list assocs assoc undef_list backref string_dvar for_var
%type <node> block_param opt_block_param block_param_def f_opt
%type <node> f_kwarg f_kw f_block_kwarg f_block_kw
%type <node> bv_decls opt_bv_decl bvar
%type <node> lambda f_larglist lambda_body
%type <node> brace_block cmd_brace_block do_block lhs none fitem
%type <node> mlhs mlhs_head mlhs_basic mlhs_item mlhs_node mlhs_post mlhs_inner
%type <id>   fsym keyword_variable user_variable sym symbol operation operation2 operation3
%type <id>   cname fname op f_rest_arg f_block_arg opt_f_block_arg f_norm_arg f_bad_arg
%type <id>   f_kwrest f_label f_arg_asgn call_op call_op2
/*%%%*/
/*%
%type <val> program reswords then do dot_or_colon
%*/
%token END_OF_INPUT 0   "end-of-input"
%token tUPLUS           RUBY_TOKEN(UPLUS)  "unary+"
%token tUMINUS          RUBY_TOKEN(UMINUS) "unary-"
%token tPOW             RUBY_TOKEN(POW)    "**"
%token tCMP             RUBY_TOKEN(CMP)    "<=>"
%token tEQ              RUBY_TOKEN(EQ)     "=="
%token tEQQ             RUBY_TOKEN(EQQ)    "==="
%token tNEQ             RUBY_TOKEN(NEQ)    "!="
%token tGEQ             RUBY_TOKEN(GEQ)    ">="
%token tLEQ             RUBY_TOKEN(LEQ)    "<="
%token tANDOP           RUBY_TOKEN(ANDOP)  "&&"
%token tOROP            RUBY_TOKEN(OROP)   "||"
%token tMATCH           RUBY_TOKEN(MATCH)  "=~"
%token tNMATCH          RUBY_TOKEN(NMATCH) "!~"
%token tDOT2            RUBY_TOKEN(DOT2)   ".."
%token tDOT3            RUBY_TOKEN(DOT3)   "..."
%token tAREF            RUBY_TOKEN(AREF)   "[]"
%token tASET            RUBY_TOKEN(ASET)   "[]="
%token tLSHFT           RUBY_TOKEN(LSHFT)  "<<"
%token tRSHFT           RUBY_TOKEN(RSHFT)  ">>"
%token tANDDOT          RUBY_TOKEN(ANDDOT) "&."
%token tCOLON2          "::"
%token tCOLON3          ":: at EXPR_BEG"
%token <id> tOP_ASGN    /* +=, -=  etc. */
%token tASSOC           "=>"
%token tLPAREN          "("
%token tLPAREN_ARG      "( arg"
%token tRPAREN          ")"
%token tLBRACK          "["
%token tLBRACE          "{"
%token tLBRACE_ARG      "{ arg"
%token tSTAR            "*"
%token tDSTAR           "**arg"
%token tAMPER           "&"
%token tLAMBDA          "->"
%token tSYMBEG tSTRING_BEG tXSTRING_BEG tREGEXP_BEG tWORDS_BEG tQWORDS_BEG tSYMBOLS_BEG tQSYMBOLS_BEG
%token tSTRING_DBEG tSTRING_DEND tSTRING_DVAR tSTRING_END tLAMBEG tLABEL_END

/*
 *      precedence table
 */

%nonassoc tLOWEST
%nonassoc tLBRACE_ARG

%nonassoc  modifier_if modifier_unless modifier_while modifier_until
%left  keyword_or keyword_and
%right keyword_not
%nonassoc keyword_defined
%right '=' tOP_ASGN
%left modifier_rescue
%right '?' ':'
%nonassoc tDOT2 tDOT3
%left  tOROP
%left  tANDOP
%nonassoc  tCMP tEQ tEQQ tNEQ tMATCH tNMATCH
%left  '>' tGEQ '<' tLEQ
%left  '|' '^'
%left  '&'
%left  tLSHFT tRSHFT
%left  '+' '-'
%left  '*' '/' '%'
%right tUMINUS_NUM tUMINUS
%right tPOW
%right '!' '~' tUPLUS

%token tLAST_TOKEN

%%
program         :  {
                        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
                    /*%%%*/
                        local_push(compile_for_eval || in_main);
                    /*%
                        local_push(0);
                    %*/
                    }
                  top_compstmt
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if ($2 && !compile_for_eval) {
                            /* last expression should not be void */
                            if (nd_type($2) != NODE_BLOCK) void_expr($2);
                            else {
                                NODE *node = $2;
                                while (node->nd_next) {
                                    node = node->nd_next;
                                }
                                void_expr(node->nd_head);
                            }
                        }
                        ruby_eval_tree = NEW_SCOPE(0, block_append(ruby_eval_tree, $2));
                    /*%
                        $$ = $2;
                        parser->result = dispatch1(program, $$);
                    %*/
                        local_pop();
                    }
                ;

top_compstmt    : top_stmts opt_terms
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        void_stmts($1);
                        fixup_nodes(&deferred_nodes);
                    /*%
                    %*/
                        $$ = $1;
                    }
                ;

top_stmts       : none
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_BEGIN(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(stmts_add, dispatch0(stmts_new),
                                                  dispatch0(void_stmt));
                    %*/
                    }
                | top_stmt
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = newline_node($1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(stmts_add, dispatch0(stmts_new), $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | top_stmts terms top_stmt
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = block_append($1, newline_node($3));
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(stmts_add, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | error top_stmt
                    {
                        $$ = remove_begin($2);
                    }
                ;

top_stmt        : stmt
                | keyword_BEGIN
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        /* local_push(0); */
                    /*%
                    %*/
                    }
                  '{' top_compstmt '}'
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        ruby_eval_tree_begin = block_append(ruby_eval_tree_begin,
                                                            $4);
                        /* NEW_PREEXE($4)); */
                        /* local_pop(); */
                        $$ = NEW_BEGIN(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(BEGIN, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

bodystmt        : compstmt
                  opt_rescue
                  opt_else
                  opt_ensure
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $1;
                        if ($2) {
                            $$ = NEW_RESCUE($1, $2, $3);
                        }
                        else if ($3) {
                            rb_warn0("else without rescue is useless");
                            $$ = block_append($$, $3);
                        }
                        if ($4) {
                            if ($$) {
                                $$ = NEW_ENSURE($$, $4);
                            }
                            else {
                                $$ = block_append($4, NEW_NIL());
                            }
                        }
                        fixpos($$, $1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch4(bodystmt,
                                       escape_Qundef($1),
                                       escape_Qundef($2),
                                       escape_Qundef($3),
                                       escape_Qundef($4));
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

compstmt        : stmts opt_terms
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        void_stmts($1);
                        fixup_nodes(&deferred_nodes);
                    /*%
                    %*/
                        $$ = $1;
                    }
                ;

stmts           : none
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_BEGIN(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(stmts_add, dispatch0(stmts_new),
                                                  dispatch0(void_stmt));
                    %*/
                    }
                | stmt_or_begin
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = newline_node($1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(stmts_add, dispatch0(stmts_new), $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | stmts terms stmt_or_begin
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = block_append($1, newline_node($3));
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(stmts_add, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | error stmt
                    {
                        $$ = remove_begin($2);
                    }
                ;

stmt_or_begin   : stmt
                    {
                        $$ = $1;
                    }
                | keyword_BEGIN
                    {
                        yyerror("BEGIN is permitted only at toplevel");
                    /*%%%*/
                        /* local_push(0); */
                    /*%
                    %*/
                    }
                  '{' top_compstmt '}'
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        ruby_eval_tree_begin = block_append(ruby_eval_tree_begin,
                                                            $4);
                        /* NEW_PREEXE($4)); */
                        /* local_pop(); */
                        $$ = NEW_BEGIN(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(BEGIN, $4);
                    %*/
                    }

stmt            : keyword_alias fitem {SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_FNAME|EXPR_FITEM);} fitem
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_ALIAS($2, $4);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(alias, $2, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_alias tGVAR tGVAR
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_VALIAS($2, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(var_alias, $2, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_alias tGVAR tBACK_REF
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        char buf[2];
                        buf[0] = '$';
                        buf[1] = (char)$3->nd_nth;
                        $$ = NEW_VALIAS($2, rb_intern2(buf, 2));
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(var_alias, $2, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_alias tGVAR tNTH_REF
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        yyerror("can't make alias for the number variables");
                        $$ = NEW_BEGIN(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(var_alias, $2, $3);
                        $$ = dispatch1(alias_error, $$);
                        ripper_error();
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_undef undef_list
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(undef, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | stmt modifier_if expr_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = new_if($3, remove_begin($1), 0);
                        fixpos($$, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(if_mod, $3, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | stmt modifier_unless expr_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = new_unless($3, remove_begin($1), 0);
                        fixpos($$, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(unless_mod, $3, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | stmt modifier_while expr_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if ($1 && nd_type($1) == NODE_BEGIN) {
                            $$ = NEW_WHILE(cond($3), $1->nd_body, 0);
                        }
                        else {
                            $$ = NEW_WHILE(cond($3), $1, 1);
                        }
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(while_mod, $3, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | stmt modifier_until expr_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if ($1 && nd_type($1) == NODE_BEGIN) {
                            $$ = NEW_UNTIL(cond($3), $1->nd_body, 0);
                        }
                        else {
                            $$ = NEW_UNTIL(cond($3), $1, 1);
                        }
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(until_mod, $3, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | stmt modifier_rescue stmt
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *resq = NEW_RESBODY(0, remove_begin($3), 0);
                        $$ = NEW_RESCUE(remove_begin($1), resq, 0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(rescue_mod, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_END '{' compstmt '}'
                    {
                        if (in_def || in_single) {
                            rb_warn0("END in method; use at_exit");
                        }
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_POSTEXE(NEW_NODE(
                            NODE_SCOPE, 0 /* tbl */, $3 /* body */, 0 /* args */));
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(END, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | command_asgn
                | mlhs '=' command_call
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($3);
                        $1->nd_value = $3;
                        $$ = $1;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(massign, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | var_lhs tOP_ASGN command_call
                    {
                        value_expr($3);
                        $$ = new_op_assign($1, $2, $3);
                    }
                | primary_value '[' opt_call_args rbracket tOP_ASGN command_call
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *args;

                        value_expr($6);
                        if (!$3) $3 = NEW_ZARRAY();
                        args = arg_concat($3, $6);
                        if ($5 == tOROP) {
                            $5 = 0;
                        }
                        else if ($5 == tANDOP) {
                            $5 = 1;
                        }
                        $$ = NEW_OP_ASGN1($1, $5, args);
                        fixpos($$, $1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(aref_field, $1, escape_Qundef($3));
                        $$ = dispatch3(opassign, $$, $5, $6);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value call_op tIDENTIFIER tOP_ASGN command_call
                    {
                        value_expr($5);
                        $$ = new_attr_op_assign($1, $2, $3, $4, $5);
                    }
                | primary_value call_op tCONSTANT tOP_ASGN command_call
                    {
                        value_expr($5);
                        $$ = new_attr_op_assign($1, $2, $3, $4, $5);
                    }
                | primary_value tCOLON2 tCONSTANT tOP_ASGN command_call
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_COLON2($1, $3);
                        $$ = new_const_op_assign($$, $4, $5);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(const_path_field, $1, $3);
                        $$ = dispatch3(opassign, $$, $4, $5);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value tCOLON2 tIDENTIFIER tOP_ASGN command_call
                    {
                        value_expr($5);
                        $$ = new_attr_op_assign($1, idCOLON2, $3, $4, $5);
                    }
                | backref tOP_ASGN command_call
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        rb_backref_error($1);
                        $$ = NEW_BEGIN(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(assign, dispatch1(var_field, $1), $3);
                        $$ = dispatch1(assign_error, $$);
                        ripper_error();
                    %*/
                    }
                | lhs '=' mrhs
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($3);
                        $$ = node_assign($1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(assign, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | mlhs '=' mrhs_arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $1->nd_value = $3;
                        $$ = $1;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(massign, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | expr
                ;

command_asgn    : lhs '=' command_call
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($3);
                        $$ = node_assign($1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(assign, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | lhs '=' command_asgn
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($3);
                        $$ = node_assign($1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(assign, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;


expr            : command_call
                | expr keyword_and expr
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = logop(NODE_AND, $1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ripper_intern("and"), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | expr keyword_or expr
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = logop(NODE_OR, $1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ripper_intern("or"), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_not opt_nl expr
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_uni_op(cond($3), '!');
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(unary, ripper_intern("not"), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | '!' command_call
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_uni_op(cond($2), '!');
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(unary, ripper_id2sym('!'), $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg
                ;

expr_value      : expr
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($1);
                        $$ = $1;
                        if (!$$) $$ = NEW_NIL();
                    /*%
                        $$ = $1;
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

command_call    : command
                | block_command
                ;

block_command   : block_call
                | block_call call_op2 operation2 command_args
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_QCALL($2, $1, $3, $4);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(call, $1, $2, $3);
                        $$ = method_arg($$, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

cmd_brace_block : tLBRACE_ARG
                    {
                        $<vars>1 = dyna_push();
                    /*%%%*/
                        $<num>$ = ruby_sourceline;
                    /*%
                    %*/
                    }
                  opt_block_param
                  compstmt
                  '}'
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_ITER($3,$4);
                        nd_set_line($$, $<num>2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(brace_block, escape_Qundef($3), $4);
                    %*/
                        dyna_pop($<vars>1);
                    }
                ;

fcall           : operation
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_FCALL($1, 0);
                        nd_set_line($$, tokline);
                    /*%
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

command         : fcall command_args       %prec tLOWEST
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $1;
                        $$->nd_args = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(command, $1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | fcall command_args cmd_brace_block
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        block_dup_check($2,$3);
                        $1->nd_args = $2;
                        $3->nd_iter = $1;
                        $$ = $3;
                        fixpos($$, $1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(command, $1, $2);
                        $$ = method_add_block($$, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value call_op operation2 command_args %prec tLOWEST
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_QCALL($2, $1, $3, $4);
                        fixpos($$, $1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch4(command_call, $1, $2, $3, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value call_op operation2 command_args cmd_brace_block
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        block_dup_check($4,$5);
                        $5->nd_iter = NEW_QCALL($2, $1, $3, $4);
                        $$ = $5;
                        fixpos($$, $1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch4(command_call, $1, $2, $3, $4);
                        $$ = method_add_block($$, $5);
                    %*/
                   }
                | primary_value tCOLON2 operation2 command_args %prec tLOWEST
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_CALL($1, $3, $4);
                        fixpos($$, $1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch4(command_call, $1, ID2SYM(idCOLON2), $3, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value tCOLON2 operation2 command_args cmd_brace_block
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        block_dup_check($4,$5);
                        $5->nd_iter = NEW_CALL($1, $3, $4);
                        $$ = $5;
                        fixpos($$, $1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch4(command_call, $1, ID2SYM(idCOLON2), $3, $4);
                        $$ = method_add_block($$, $5);
                    %*/
                   }
                | keyword_super command_args
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_SUPER($2);
                        fixpos($$, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(super, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_yield command_args
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = new_yield($2);
                        fixpos($$, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(yield, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_return call_args
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_RETURN(ret_args($2));
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(return, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_break call_args
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_BREAK(ret_args($2));
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(break, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_next call_args
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_NEXT(ret_args($2));
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(next, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

mlhs            : mlhs_basic
                | tLPAREN mlhs_inner rparen
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(mlhs_paren, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

mlhs_inner      : mlhs_basic
                | tLPAREN mlhs_inner rparen
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN(NEW_LIST($2), 0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(mlhs_paren, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

mlhs_basic      : mlhs_head
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN($1, 0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = $1;
                    %*/
                    }
                | mlhs_head mlhs_item
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN(list_append($1,$2), 0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add($1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | mlhs_head tSTAR mlhs_node
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN($1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add_star($1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | mlhs_head tSTAR mlhs_node ',' mlhs_post
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN($1, NEW_POSTARG($3,$5));
                    /*%
                        $1 = mlhs_add_star($1, $3);
                        $$ = mlhs_add($1, $5);
                    %*/
                    }
                | mlhs_head tSTAR
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN($1, -1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add_star($1, Qnil);
                    %*/
                    }
                | mlhs_head tSTAR ',' mlhs_post
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN($1, NEW_POSTARG(-1, $4));
                    /*%
                        $1 = mlhs_add_star($1, Qnil);
                        $$ = mlhs_add($1, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tSTAR mlhs_node
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN(0, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add_star(mlhs_new(), $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tSTAR mlhs_node ',' mlhs_post
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN(0, NEW_POSTARG($2,$4));
                    /*%
                        $2 = mlhs_add_star(mlhs_new(), $2);
                        $$ = mlhs_add($2, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tSTAR
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN(0, -1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add_star(mlhs_new(), Qnil);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tSTAR ',' mlhs_post
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN(0, NEW_POSTARG(-1, $3));
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add_star(mlhs_new(), Qnil);
                        $$ = mlhs_add($$, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

mlhs_item       : mlhs_node
                | tLPAREN mlhs_inner rparen
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(mlhs_paren, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

mlhs_head       : mlhs_item ','
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_LIST($1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add(mlhs_new(), $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | mlhs_head mlhs_item ','
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = list_append($1, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add($1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

mlhs_post       : mlhs_item
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_LIST($1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add(mlhs_new(), $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | mlhs_post ',' mlhs_item
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = list_append($1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add($1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

mlhs_node       : user_variable
                    {
                        $$ = assignable($1, 0);
                    }
                | keyword_variable
                    {
                        $$ = assignable($1, 0);
                    }
                | primary_value '[' opt_call_args rbracket
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = aryset($1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(aref_field, $1, escape_Qundef($3));
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value call_op tIDENTIFIER
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = attrset($1, $2, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(field, $1, $2, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value tCOLON2 tIDENTIFIER
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = attrset($1, idCOLON2, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(const_path_field, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value call_op tCONSTANT
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = attrset($1, $2, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(field, $1, $2, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value tCOLON2 tCONSTANT
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (in_def || in_single)
                            yyerror("dynamic constant assignment");
                        $$ = NEW_CDECL(0, 0, NEW_COLON2($1, $3));
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(const_path_field, $1, $3);
                        if (in_def || in_single) {
                            $$ = dispatch1(assign_error, $$);
                            ripper_error();
                        }
                    %*/
                    }
                | tCOLON3 tCONSTANT
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (in_def || in_single)
                            yyerror("dynamic constant assignment");
                        $$ = NEW_CDECL(0, 0, NEW_COLON3($2));
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(top_const_field, $2);
                        if (in_def || in_single) {
                            $$ = dispatch1(assign_error, $$);
                            ripper_error();
                        }
                    %*/
                    }
                | backref
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        rb_backref_error($1);
                        $$ = NEW_BEGIN(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(var_field, $1);
                        $$ = dispatch1(assign_error, $$);
                        ripper_error();
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

lhs             : user_variable
                    {
                        $$ = assignable($1, 0);
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (!$$) $$ = NEW_BEGIN(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(var_field, $$);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_variable
                    {
                        $$ = assignable($1, 0);
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (!$$) $$ = NEW_BEGIN(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(var_field, $$);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value '[' opt_call_args rbracket
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = aryset($1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(aref_field, $1, escape_Qundef($3));
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value call_op tIDENTIFIER
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = attrset($1, $2, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(field, $1, $2, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value tCOLON2 tIDENTIFIER
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = attrset($1, idCOLON2, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(field, $1, ID2SYM(idCOLON2), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value call_op tCONSTANT
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = attrset($1, $2, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(field, $1, $2, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value tCOLON2 tCONSTANT
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (in_def || in_single)
                            yyerror("dynamic constant assignment");
                        $$ = NEW_CDECL(0, 0, NEW_COLON2($1, $3));
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(const_path_field, $1, $3);
                        if (in_def || in_single) {
                            $$ = dispatch1(assign_error, $$);
                            ripper_error();
                        }
                    %*/
                    }
                | tCOLON3 tCONSTANT
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (in_def || in_single)
                            yyerror("dynamic constant assignment");
                        $$ = NEW_CDECL(0, 0, NEW_COLON3($2));
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(top_const_field, $2);
                        if (in_def || in_single) {
                            $$ = dispatch1(assign_error, $$);
                            ripper_error();
                        }
                    %*/
                    }
                | backref
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        rb_backref_error($1);
                        $$ = NEW_BEGIN(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(assign_error, $1);
                        ripper_error();
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

cname           : tIDENTIFIER
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        yyerror("class/module name must be CONSTANT");
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(class_name_error, $1);
                        ripper_error();
                    %*/
                    }
                | tCONSTANT
                ;

cpath           : tCOLON3 cname
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_COLON3($2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(top_const_ref, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | cname
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_COLON2(0, $$);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(const_ref, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value tCOLON2 cname
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_COLON2($1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(const_path_ref, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

fname           : tIDENTIFIER
                | tCONSTANT
                | tFID
                | op
                    {
                        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ENDFN);
                        $$ = $1;
                    }
                | reswords
                    {
                        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ENDFN);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $<id>1;
                    /*%
                        $$ = $1;
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

fsym            : fname
                | symbol
                ;

fitem           : fsym
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_LIT(ID2SYM($1));
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(symbol_literal, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | dsym
                ;

undef_list      : fitem
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_UNDEF($1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_ary_new3(1, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | undef_list ',' {SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_FNAME|EXPR_FITEM);} fitem
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = block_append($1, NEW_UNDEF($4));
                    /*%
                        rb_ary_push($1, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

op              : '|'           { ifndef_ripper($$ = '|'); }
                | '^'           { ifndef_ripper($$ = '^'); }
                | '&'           { ifndef_ripper($$ = '&'); }
                | tCMP          { ifndef_ripper($$ = tCMP); }
                | tEQ           { ifndef_ripper($$ = tEQ); }
                | tEQQ          { ifndef_ripper($$ = tEQQ); }
                | tMATCH        { ifndef_ripper($$ = tMATCH); }
                | tNMATCH       { ifndef_ripper($$ = tNMATCH); }
                | '>'           { ifndef_ripper($$ = '>'); }
                | tGEQ          { ifndef_ripper($$ = tGEQ); }
                | '<'           { ifndef_ripper($$ = '<'); }
                | tLEQ          { ifndef_ripper($$ = tLEQ); }
                | tNEQ          { ifndef_ripper($$ = tNEQ); }
                | tLSHFT        { ifndef_ripper($$ = tLSHFT); }
                | tRSHFT        { ifndef_ripper($$ = tRSHFT); }
                | '+'           { ifndef_ripper($$ = '+'); }
                | '-'           { ifndef_ripper($$ = '-'); }
                | '*'           { ifndef_ripper($$ = '*'); }
                | tSTAR         { ifndef_ripper($$ = '*'); }
                | '/'           { ifndef_ripper($$ = '/'); }
                | '%'           { ifndef_ripper($$ = '%'); }
                | tPOW          { ifndef_ripper($$ = tPOW); }
                | tDSTAR        { ifndef_ripper($$ = tDSTAR); }
                | '!'           { ifndef_ripper($$ = '!'); }
                | '~'           { ifndef_ripper($$ = '~'); }
                | tUPLUS        { ifndef_ripper($$ = tUPLUS); }
                | tUMINUS       { ifndef_ripper($$ = tUMINUS); }
                | tAREF         { ifndef_ripper($$ = tAREF); }
                | tASET         { ifndef_ripper($$ = tASET); }
                | '`'           { ifndef_ripper($$ = '`'); }
                ;

reswords        : keyword__LINE__ | keyword__FILE__ | keyword__ENCODING__
                | keyword_BEGIN | keyword_END
                | keyword_alias | keyword_and | keyword_begin
                | keyword_break | keyword_case | keyword_class | keyword_def
                | keyword_defined | keyword_do | keyword_else | keyword_elsif
                | keyword_end | keyword_ensure | keyword_false
                | keyword_for | keyword_in | keyword_module | keyword_next
                | keyword_nil | keyword_not | keyword_or | keyword_redo
                | keyword_rescue | keyword_retry | keyword_return | keyword_self
                | keyword_super | keyword_then | keyword_true | keyword_undef
                | keyword_when | keyword_yield | keyword_if | keyword_unless
                | keyword_while | keyword_until
                ;

arg             : lhs '=' arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($3);
                        $$ = node_assign($1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(assign, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | lhs '=' arg modifier_rescue arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($3);
                        $3 = NEW_RESCUE($3, NEW_RESBODY(0,$5,0), 0);
                        $$ = node_assign($1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(assign, $1, dispatch2(rescue_mod, $3, $5));
                    %*/
                    }
                | var_lhs tOP_ASGN arg
                    {
                        value_expr($3);
                        $$ = new_op_assign($1, $2, $3);
                    }
                | var_lhs tOP_ASGN arg modifier_rescue arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($3);
                        $3 = NEW_RESCUE($3, NEW_RESBODY(0,$5,0), 0);
                    /*%
                        $3 = dispatch2(rescue_mod, $3, $5);
                    %*/
                        $$ = new_op_assign($1, $2, $3);
                    }
                | primary_value '[' opt_call_args rbracket tOP_ASGN arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *args;

                        value_expr($6);
                        if (!$3) $3 = NEW_ZARRAY();
                        if (nd_type($3) == NODE_BLOCK_PASS) {
                            args = NEW_ARGSCAT($3, $6);
                        }
                        else {
                            args = arg_concat($3, $6);
                        }
                        if ($5 == tOROP) {
                            $5 = 0;
                        }
                        else if ($5 == tANDOP) {
                            $5 = 1;
                        }
                        $$ = NEW_OP_ASGN1($1, $5, args);
                        fixpos($$, $1);
                    /*%
                        $1 = dispatch2(aref_field, $1, escape_Qundef($3));
                        $$ = dispatch3(opassign, $1, $5, $6);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value call_op tIDENTIFIER tOP_ASGN arg
                    {
                        value_expr($5);
                        $$ = new_attr_op_assign($1, $2, $3, $4, $5);
                    }
                | primary_value call_op tCONSTANT tOP_ASGN arg
                    {
                        value_expr($5);
                        $$ = new_attr_op_assign($1, $2, $3, $4, $5);
                    }
                | primary_value tCOLON2 tIDENTIFIER tOP_ASGN arg
                    {
                        value_expr($5);
                        $$ = new_attr_op_assign($1, idCOLON2, $3, $4, $5);
                    }
                | primary_value tCOLON2 tCONSTANT tOP_ASGN arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_COLON2($1, $3);
                        $$ = new_const_op_assign($$, $4, $5);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(const_path_field, $1, $3);
                        $$ = dispatch3(opassign, $$, $4, $5);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tCOLON3 tCONSTANT tOP_ASGN arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_COLON3($2);
                        $$ = new_const_op_assign($$, $3, $4);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(top_const_field, $2);
                        $$ = dispatch3(opassign, $$, $3, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | backref tOP_ASGN arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        rb_backref_error($1);
                        $$ = NEW_BEGIN(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(var_field, $1);
                        $$ = dispatch3(opassign, $$, $2, $3);
                        $$ = dispatch1(assign_error, $$);
                        ripper_error();
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tDOT2 arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($1);
                        value_expr($3);
                        $$ = NEW_DOT2($1, $3);
                        if ($1 && nd_type($1) == NODE_LIT && FIXNUM_P($1->nd_lit) &&
                            $3 && nd_type($3) == NODE_LIT && FIXNUM_P($3->nd_lit)) {
                            deferred_nodes = list_append(deferred_nodes, $$);
                        }
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(dot2, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tDOT3 arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($1);
                        value_expr($3);
                        $$ = NEW_DOT3($1, $3);
                        if ($1 && nd_type($1) == NODE_LIT && FIXNUM_P($1->nd_lit) &&
                            $3 && nd_type($3) == NODE_LIT && FIXNUM_P($3->nd_lit)) {
                            deferred_nodes = list_append(deferred_nodes, $$);
                        }
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(dot3, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg '+' arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, '+', $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM('+'), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg '-' arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, '-', $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM('-'), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg '*' arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, '*', $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM('*'), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg '/' arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, '/', $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM('/'), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg '%' arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, '%', $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM('%'), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tPOW arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, tPOW, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM(idPow), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tUMINUS_NUM simple_numeric tPOW arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_CALL(call_bin_op($2, tPOW, $4), tUMINUS, 0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $2, ID2SYM(idPow), $4);
                        $$ = dispatch2(unary, ID2SYM(idUMinus), $$);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tUPLUS arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_uni_op($2, tUPLUS);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(unary, ID2SYM(idUPlus), $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tUMINUS arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_uni_op($2, tUMINUS);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(unary, ID2SYM(idUMinus), $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg '|' arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, '|', $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM('|'), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg '^' arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, '^', $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM('^'), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg '&' arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, '&', $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM('&'), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tCMP arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, tCMP, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM(idCmp), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg '>' arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, '>', $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM('>'), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tGEQ arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, tGEQ, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM(idGE), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg '<' arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, '<', $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM('<'), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tLEQ arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, tLEQ, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM(idLE), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tEQ arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, tEQ, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM(idEq), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tEQQ arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, tEQQ, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM(idEqq), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tNEQ arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, tNEQ, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM(idNeq), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tMATCH arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = match_op($1, $3);
                        if (nd_type($1) == NODE_LIT) {
                            VALUE lit = $1->nd_lit;
                            if (RB_TYPE_P(lit, T_REGEXP)) {
                                $$->nd_args = reg_named_capture_assign(lit);
                            }
                        }
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM(idEqTilde), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tNMATCH arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, tNMATCH, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM(idNeqTilde), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | '!' arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_uni_op(cond($2), '!');
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(unary, ID2SYM('!'), $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | '~' arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_uni_op($2, '~');
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(unary, ID2SYM('~'), $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tLSHFT arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, tLSHFT, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM(idLTLT), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tRSHFT arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_bin_op($1, tRSHFT, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM(idGTGT), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tANDOP arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = logop(NODE_AND, $1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM(idANDOP), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg tOROP arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = logop(NODE_OR, $1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(binary, $1, ID2SYM(idOROP), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_defined opt_nl {in_defined = 1;} arg
                    {
                        in_defined = 0;
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = new_defined($4);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(defined, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | arg '?' arg opt_nl ':' arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($1);
                        $$ = new_if($1, $3, $6);
                        fixpos($$, $1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(ifop, $1, $3, $6);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary
                    {
                        $$ = $1;
                    }
                ;

arg_value       : arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($1);
                        $$ = $1;
                        if (!$$) $$ = NEW_NIL();
                    /*%
                        $$ = $1;
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

aref_args       : none
                | args trailer
                    {
                        $$ = $1;
                    }
                | args ',' assocs trailer
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $3 ? arg_append($1, new_hash($3)) : $1;
                    /*%
                        $$ = arg_add_assocs($1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | assocs trailer
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $1 ? NEW_LIST(new_hash($1)) : 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = arg_add_assocs(arg_new(), $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

paren_args      : '(' opt_call_args rparen
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(arg_paren, escape_Qundef($2));
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

opt_paren_args  : none
                | paren_args
                ;

opt_call_args   : none
                | call_args
                | args ','
                    {
                      $$ = $1;
                    }
                | args ',' assocs ','
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $3 ? arg_append($1, new_hash($3)) : $1;
                    /*%
                        $$ = arg_add_assocs($1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | assocs ','
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $1 ? NEW_LIST(new_hash($1)) : 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = arg_add_assocs(arg_new(), $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

call_args       : command
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($1);
                        $$ = NEW_LIST($1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = arg_add(arg_new(), $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | args opt_block_arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = arg_blk_pass($1, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = arg_add_optblock($1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | assocs opt_block_arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_LIST($1 ? new_hash($1) : 0);
                        $$ = arg_blk_pass($$, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = arg_add_assocs(arg_new(), $1);
                        $$ = arg_add_optblock($$, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | args ',' assocs opt_block_arg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $3 ? arg_append($1, new_hash($3)) : $1;
                        $$ = arg_blk_pass($$, $4);
                    /*%
                        $$ = arg_add_optblock(arg_add_assocs($1, $3), $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | block_arg
                    /*%c%*/
                    /*%c
                    {
                        $$ = arg_add_block(arg_new(), $1);
                    }
                    %*/
                ;

command_args    :   {
                        $<val>$ = cmdarg_stack;
                        CMDARG_PUSH(1);
                    }
                  call_args
                    {
                        /* CMDARG_POP() */
                        CMDARG_SET($<val>1);
                        $$ = $2;
                    }
                ;

block_arg       : tAMPER arg_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_BLOCK_PASS($2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = $2;
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

opt_block_arg   : ',' block_arg
                    {
                        $$ = $2;
                    }
                | none
                    {
                        $$ = 0;
                    }
                ;

args            : arg_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_LIST($1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = arg_add(arg_new(), $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tSTAR arg_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_SPLAT($2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = arg_add_star(arg_new(), $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | args ',' arg_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *n1;
                        if ((n1 = splat_array($1)) != 0) {
                            $$ = list_append(n1, $3);
                        }
                        else {
                            $$ = arg_append($1, $3);
                        }
                    /*%
                        $$ = arg_add($1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | args ',' tSTAR arg_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *n1;
                        if ((nd_type($4) == NODE_ARRAY) && (n1 = splat_array($1)) != 0) {
                            $$ = list_concat(n1, $4);
                        }
                        else {
                            $$ = arg_concat($1, $4);
                        }
                    /*%
                        $$ = arg_add_star($1, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

mrhs_arg        : mrhs
                | arg_value
                ;

mrhs            : args ',' arg_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *n1;
                        if ((n1 = splat_array($1)) != 0) {
                            $$ = list_append(n1, $3);
                        }
                        else {
                            $$ = arg_append($1, $3);
                        }
                    /*%
                        $$ = mrhs_add(args2mrhs($1), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | args ',' tSTAR arg_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *n1;
                        if (nd_type($4) == NODE_ARRAY &&
                            (n1 = splat_array($1)) != 0) {
                            $$ = list_concat(n1, $4);
                        }
                        else {
                            $$ = arg_concat($1, $4);
                        }
                    /*%
                        $$ = mrhs_add_star(args2mrhs($1), $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tSTAR arg_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_SPLAT($2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mrhs_add_star(mrhs_new(), $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

primary         : literal
                | strings
                | xstring
                | regexp
                | words
                | qwords
                | symbols
                | qsymbols
                | var_ref
                | backref
                | tFID
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_FCALL($1, 0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = method_arg(dispatch1(fcall, $1), arg_new());
                    %*/
                    }
                | k_begin
                    {
                        $<val>1 = cmdarg_stack;
                        CMDARG_SET(0);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $<num>$ = ruby_sourceline;
                    /*%
                    %*/
                    }
                  bodystmt
                  k_end
                    {
                        CMDARG_SET($<val>1);
                    /*%%%*/
                        if ($3 == NULL) {
                            $$ = NEW_NIL();
                        }
                        else {
                            if (nd_type($3) == NODE_RESCUE ||
                                nd_type($3) == NODE_ENSURE)
                                nd_set_line($3, $<num>2);
                            $$ = NEW_BEGIN($3);
                        }
                        nd_set_line($$, $<num>2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(begin, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tLPAREN_ARG {SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ENDARG);} rparen
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(paren, 0);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tLPAREN_ARG
                    {
                        $<val>1 = cmdarg_stack;
                        CMDARG_SET(0);
                    }
                  expr {SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ENDARG);} rparen
                    {
                        CMDARG_SET($<val>1);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $3;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(paren, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tLPAREN compstmt ')'
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(paren, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value tCOLON2 tCONSTANT
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_COLON2($1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(const_path_ref, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tCOLON3 tCONSTANT
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_COLON3($2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(top_const_ref, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tLBRACK aref_args ']'
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if ($2 == 0) {
                            $$ = NEW_ZARRAY(); /* zero length array*/
                        }
                        else {
                            $$ = $2;
                        }
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(array, escape_Qundef($2));
                    %*/
                    }
                | tLBRACE assoc_list '}'
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = new_hash($2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(hash, escape_Qundef($2));
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_return
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_RETURN(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(return0);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_yield '(' call_args rparen
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = new_yield($3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(yield, dispatch1(paren, $3));
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_yield '(' rparen
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_YIELD(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(yield, dispatch1(paren, arg_new()));
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_yield
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_YIELD(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(yield0);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_defined opt_nl '(' {in_defined = 1;} expr rparen
                    {
                        in_defined = 0;
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = new_defined($5);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(defined, $5);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_not '(' expr rparen
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_uni_op(cond($3), '!');
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(unary, ripper_intern("not"), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_not '(' rparen
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = call_uni_op(cond(NEW_NIL()), '!');
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(unary, ripper_intern("not"), Qnil);
                    %*/
                    }
                | fcall brace_block
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $2->nd_iter = $1;
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = method_arg(dispatch1(fcall, $1), arg_new());
                        $$ = method_add_block($$, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | method_call
                | method_call brace_block
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        block_dup_check($1->nd_args, $2);
                        $2->nd_iter = $1;
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = method_add_block($1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tLAMBDA lambda
                    {
                        $$ = $2;
                    }
                | k_if expr_value then
                  compstmt
                  if_tail
                  k_end
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = new_if($2, $4, $5);
                        fixpos($$, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(if, $2, $4, escape_Qundef($5));
                    %*/
                    }
                | k_unless expr_value then
                  compstmt
                  opt_else
                  k_end
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = new_unless($2, $4, $5);
                        fixpos($$, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(unless, $2, $4, escape_Qundef($5));
                    %*/
                    }
                | k_while {COND_PUSH(1);} expr_value do {COND_POP();}
                  compstmt
                  k_end
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_WHILE(cond($3), $6, 1);
                        fixpos($$, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(while, $3, $6);
                    %*/
                    }
                | k_until {COND_PUSH(1);} expr_value do {COND_POP();}
                  compstmt
                  k_end
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_UNTIL(cond($3), $6, 1);
                        fixpos($$, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(until, $3, $6);
                    %*/
                    }
                | k_case expr_value opt_terms
                  case_body
                  k_end
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_CASE($2, $4);
                        fixpos($$, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(case, $2, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | k_case opt_terms case_body k_end
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_CASE(0, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(case, Qnil, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | k_for for_var keyword_in
                  {COND_PUSH(1);}
                  expr_value do
                  {COND_POP();}
                  compstmt
                  k_end
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        /*
                         *  for a, b, c in e
                         *  #=>
                         *  e.each{|*x| a, b, c = x}
                         *
                         *  for a in e
                         *  #=>
                         *  e.each{|x| a, = x}
                         */
                        ID id = internal_id();
                        ID *tbl = ALLOC_N(ID, 2);
                        NODE *m = NEW_ARGS_AUX(0, 0);
                        NODE *args, *scope;

                        switch (nd_type($2)) {
                          case NODE_MASGN:
                            m->nd_next = node_assign($2, NEW_FOR(NEW_DVAR(id), 0, 0));
                            args = new_args(m, 0, id, 0, new_args_tail(0, 0, 0));
                            break;
                          case NODE_LASGN:
                          case NODE_DASGN:
                          case NODE_DASGN_CURR:
                            $2->nd_value = NEW_DVAR(id);
                            m->nd_plen = 1;
                            m->nd_next = $2;
                            args = new_args(m, 0, 0, 0, new_args_tail(0, 0, 0));
                            break;
                          default:
                            m->nd_next = node_assign(NEW_MASGN(NEW_LIST($2), 0), NEW_DVAR(id));
                            args = new_args(m, 0, id, 0, new_args_tail(0, 0, 0));
                            break;
                        }
                        scope = NEW_NODE(NODE_SCOPE, tbl, $8, args);
                        tbl[0] = 1; tbl[1] = id;
                        $$ = NEW_FOR(0, $5, scope);
                        fixpos($$, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(for, $2, $5, $8);
                    %*/
                    }
                | k_class cpath superclass
                    {
                        if (in_def || in_single)
                            yyerror("class definition in method body");
                        local_push(0);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $<num>$ = ruby_sourceline;
                    /*%
                    %*/
                    }
                  bodystmt
                  k_end
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_CLASS($2, $5, $3);
                        nd_set_line($$, $<num>4);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(class, $2, $3, $5);
                    %*/
                        local_pop();
                    }
                | k_class tLSHFT expr
                    {
                        $<num>$ = (in_def << 1) | in_single;
                        in_def = 0;
                        in_single = 0;
                        local_push(0);
                    }
                  term
                  bodystmt
                  k_end
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_SCLASS($3, $6);
                        fixpos($$, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(sclass, $3, $6);
                    %*/
                        local_pop();
                        in_def = ($<num>4 >> 1) & 1;
                        in_single = $<num>4 & 1;
                    }
                | k_module cpath
                    {
                        if (in_def || in_single)
                            yyerror("module definition in method body");
                        local_push(0);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $<num>$ = ruby_sourceline;
                    /*%
                    %*/
                    }
                  bodystmt
                  k_end
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MODULE($2, $4);
                        nd_set_line($$, $<num>3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(module, $2, $4);
                    %*/
                        local_pop();
                    }
                | k_def fname
                    {
                        local_push(0);
                        $<id>$ = current_arg;
                        current_arg = 0;
                    }
                    {
                        $<num>$ = in_def;
                        in_def = 1;
                    }
                  f_arglist
                  bodystmt
                  k_end
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *body = remove_begin($6);
                        reduce_nodes(&body);
                        $$ = NEW_DEFN($2, $5, body, METHOD_VISI_PRIVATE);
                        nd_set_line($$, $<num>1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(def, $2, $5, $6);
                    %*/
                        local_pop();
                        in_def = $<num>4 & 1;
                        current_arg = $<id>3;
                    }
                | k_def singleton dot_or_colon {SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_FNAME);} fname
                    {
                        $<num>4 = in_single;
                        in_single = 1;
                        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ENDFN|EXPR_LABEL); /* force for args */
                        local_push(0);
                        $<id>$ = current_arg;
                        current_arg = 0;
                    }
                  f_arglist
                  bodystmt
                  k_end
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *body = remove_begin($8);
                        reduce_nodes(&body);
                        $$ = NEW_DEFS($2, $5, $7, body);
                        nd_set_line($$, $<num>1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch5(defs, $2, $3, $5, $7, $8);
                    %*/
                        local_pop();
                        in_single = $<num>4 & 1;
                        current_arg = $<id>6;
                    }
                | keyword_break
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_BREAK(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(break, arg_new());
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_next
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_NEXT(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(next, arg_new());
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_redo
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_REDO();
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(redo);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_retry
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_RETRY();
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(retry);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

primary_value   : primary
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($1);
                        $$ = $1;
                        if (!$$) $$ = NEW_NIL();
                    /*%
                        $$ = $1;
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

k_begin         : keyword_begin
                    {
                        token_info_push("begin");
                    }
                ;

k_if            : keyword_if
                    {
                        token_info_push("if");
                    }
                ;

k_unless        : keyword_unless
                    {
                        token_info_push("unless");
                    }
                ;

k_while         : keyword_while
                    {
                        token_info_push("while");
                    }
                ;

k_until         : keyword_until
                    {
                        token_info_push("until");
                    }
                ;

k_case          : keyword_case
                    {
                        token_info_push("case");
                    }
                ;

k_for           : keyword_for
                    {
                        token_info_push("for");
                    }
                ;

k_class         : keyword_class
                    {
                        token_info_push("class");
                    }
                ;

k_module        : keyword_module
                    {
                        token_info_push("module");
                    }
                ;

k_def           : keyword_def
                    {
                        token_info_push("def");
                    /*%%%*/
                        $<num>$ = ruby_sourceline;
                    /*%
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

k_end           : keyword_end
                    {
                        token_info_pop("end");
                    }
                ;

then            : term
                    /*%c%*/
                    /*%c
                    { $$ = Qnil; }
                    %*/
                | keyword_then
                | term keyword_then
                    /*%c%*/
                    /*%c
                    { $$ = $2; }
                    %*/
                ;

do              : term
                    /*%c%*/
                    /*%c
                    { $$ = Qnil; }
                    %*/
                | keyword_do_cond
                ;

if_tail         : opt_else
                | keyword_elsif expr_value then
                  compstmt
                  if_tail
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = new_if($2, $4, $5);
                        fixpos($$, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(elsif, $2, $4, escape_Qundef($5));
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

opt_else        : none
                | keyword_else compstmt
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(else, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

for_var         : lhs
                | mlhs
                ;

f_marg          : f_norm_arg
                    {
                        $$ = assignable($1, 0);
                    /*%%%*/
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(mlhs_paren, $$);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tLPAREN f_margs rparen
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(mlhs_paren, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

f_marg_list     : f_marg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_LIST($1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add(mlhs_new(), $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | f_marg_list ',' f_marg
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = list_append($1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add($1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

f_margs         : f_marg_list
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN($1, 0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = $1;
                    %*/
                    }
                | f_marg_list ',' tSTAR f_norm_arg
                    {
                        $$ = assignable($4, 0);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN($1, $$);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add_star($1, $$);
                    %*/
                    }
                | f_marg_list ',' tSTAR f_norm_arg ',' f_marg_list
                    {
                        $$ = assignable($4, 0);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN($1, NEW_POSTARG($$, $6));
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add_star($1, $$);
                    %*/
                    }
                | f_marg_list ',' tSTAR
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN($1, -1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add_star($1, Qnil);
                    %*/
                    }
                | f_marg_list ',' tSTAR ',' f_marg_list
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN($1, NEW_POSTARG(-1, $5));
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add_star($1, $5);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tSTAR f_norm_arg
                    {
                        $$ = assignable($2, 0);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN(0, $$);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add_star(mlhs_new(), $$);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tSTAR f_norm_arg ',' f_marg_list
                    {
                        $$ = assignable($2, 0);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN(0, NEW_POSTARG($$, $4));
                    /*%
                      #if 0
                      TODO: Check me
                      #endif
                        $$ = mlhs_add_star($$, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tSTAR
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN(0, -1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add_star(mlhs_new(), Qnil);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tSTAR ',' f_marg_list
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_MASGN(0, NEW_POSTARG(-1, $3));
                    /*%
                        $$ = mlhs_add_star(mlhs_new(), Qnil);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;


block_args_tail : f_block_kwarg ',' f_kwrest opt_f_block_arg
                    {
                        $$ = new_args_tail($1, $3, $4);
                    }
                | f_block_kwarg opt_f_block_arg
                    {
                        $$ = new_args_tail($1, Qnone, $2);
                    }
                | f_kwrest opt_f_block_arg
                    {
                        $$ = new_args_tail(Qnone, $1, $2);
                    }
                | f_block_arg
                    {
                        $$ = new_args_tail(Qnone, Qnone, $1);
                    }
                ;

opt_block_args_tail : ',' block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = $2;
                    }
                | /* none */
                    {
                        $$ = new_args_tail(Qnone, Qnone, Qnone);
                    }
                ;

block_param     : f_arg ',' f_block_optarg ',' f_rest_arg opt_block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, $3, $5, Qnone, $6);
                    }
                | f_arg ',' f_block_optarg ',' f_rest_arg ',' f_arg opt_block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, $3, $5, $7, $8);
                    }
                | f_arg ',' f_block_optarg opt_block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, $3, Qnone, Qnone, $4);
                    }
                | f_arg ',' f_block_optarg ',' f_arg opt_block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, $3, Qnone, $5, $6);
                    }
                | f_arg ',' f_rest_arg opt_block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, Qnone, $3, Qnone, $4);
                    }
                | f_arg ','
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, Qnone, 1, Qnone, new_args_tail(Qnone, Qnone, Qnone));
                    /*%%%*/
                    /*%
                        dispatch1(excessed_comma, $$);
                    %*/
                    }
                | f_arg ',' f_rest_arg ',' f_arg opt_block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, Qnone, $3, $5, $6);
                    }
                | f_arg opt_block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, Qnone, Qnone, Qnone, $2);
                    }
                | f_block_optarg ',' f_rest_arg opt_block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, $1, $3, Qnone, $4);
                    }
                | f_block_optarg ',' f_rest_arg ',' f_arg opt_block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, $1, $3, $5, $6);
                    }
                | f_block_optarg opt_block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, $1, Qnone, Qnone, $2);
                    }
                | f_block_optarg ',' f_arg opt_block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, $1, Qnone, $3, $4);
                    }
                | f_rest_arg opt_block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, Qnone, $1, Qnone, $2);
                    }
                | f_rest_arg ',' f_arg opt_block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, Qnone, $1, $3, $4);
                    }
                | block_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, Qnone, Qnone, Qnone, $1);
                    }
                ;

opt_block_param : none
                | block_param_def
                    {
                        command_start = TRUE;
                    }
                ;

block_param_def : '|' opt_bv_decl '|'
                    {
                        current_arg = 0;
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = blockvar_new(params_new(Qnil,Qnil,Qnil,Qnil,Qnil,Qnil,Qnil),
                                          escape_Qundef($2));
                    %*/
                    }
                | tOROP
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = blockvar_new(params_new(Qnil,Qnil,Qnil,Qnil,Qnil,Qnil,Qnil),
                                          Qnil);
                    %*/
                    }
                | '|' block_param opt_bv_decl '|'
                    {
                        current_arg = 0;
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = blockvar_new(escape_Qundef($2), escape_Qundef($3));
                    %*/
                    }
                ;


opt_bv_decl     : opt_nl
                    {
                      $$ = 0;
                    }
                | opt_nl ';' bv_decls opt_nl
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = $3;
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

bv_decls        : bvar
                    /*%c%*/
                    /*%c
                    {
                        $$ = rb_ary_new3(1, $1);
                    }
                    %*/
                | bv_decls ',' bvar
                    /*%c%*/
                    /*%c
                    {
                        rb_ary_push($1, $3);
                    }
                    %*/
                ;

bvar            : tIDENTIFIER
                    {
                        new_bv(get_id($1));
                    /*%%%*/
                    /*%
                        $$ = get_value($1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | f_bad_arg
                    {
                        $$ = 0;
                    }
                ;

lambda          :   {
                        $<vars>$ = dyna_push();
                    }
                    {
                        $<num>$ = lpar_beg;
                        lpar_beg = ++paren_nest;
                    }
                  f_larglist
                    {
                        $<num>$ = ruby_sourceline;
                    }
                    {
                        $<val>$ = cmdarg_stack;
                        CMDARG_SET(0);
                    }
                  lambda_body
                    {
                        lpar_beg = $<num>2;
                        CMDARG_SET($<val>5);
                        CMDARG_LEXPOP();
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_LAMBDA($3, $6);
                        nd_set_line($$, $<num>4);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(lambda, $3, $6);
                    %*/
                        dyna_pop($<vars>1);
                    }
                ;

f_larglist      : '(' f_args opt_bv_decl ')'
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(paren, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | f_args
                    {
                        $$ = $1;
                    }
                ;

lambda_body     : tLAMBEG compstmt '}'
                    {
                        token_info_pop("}");
                        $$ = $2;
                    }
                | keyword_do_LAMBDA compstmt k_end
                    {
                        $$ = $2;
                    }
                ;

do_block        : keyword_do_block
                    {
                        $<vars>1 = dyna_push();
                    /*%%%*/
                        $<num>$ = ruby_sourceline;
                    /*% %*/
                    }
                  opt_block_param
                  compstmt
                  keyword_end
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_ITER($3,$4);
                        nd_set_line($$, $<num>2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(do_block, escape_Qundef($3), $4);
                    %*/
                        dyna_pop($<vars>1);
                    }
                ;

block_call      : command do_block
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (nd_type($1) == NODE_YIELD) {
                            compile_error(PARSER_ARG "block given to yield");
                        }
                        else {
                            block_dup_check($1->nd_args, $2);
                        }
                        $2->nd_iter = $1;
                        $$ = $2;
                        fixpos($$, $1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = method_add_block($1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | block_call call_op2 operation2 opt_paren_args
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_QCALL($2, $1, $3, $4);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(call, $1, $2, $3);
                        $$ = method_optarg($$, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | block_call call_op2 operation2 opt_paren_args brace_block
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        block_dup_check($4, $5);
                        $5->nd_iter = NEW_QCALL($2, $1, $3, $4);
                        $$ = $5;
                        fixpos($$, $1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch4(command_call, $1, $2, $3, $4);
                        $$ = method_add_block($$, $5);
                    %*/
                    }
                | block_call call_op2 operation2 command_args do_block
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        block_dup_check($4, $5);
                        $5->nd_iter = NEW_QCALL($2, $1, $3, $4);
                        $$ = $5;
                        fixpos($$, $1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch4(command_call, $1, $2, $3, $4);
                        $$ = method_add_block($$, $5);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

method_call     : fcall paren_args
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $1;
                        $$->nd_args = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = method_arg(dispatch1(fcall, $1), $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value call_op operation2
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $<num>$ = ruby_sourceline;
                    /*% %*/
                    }
                  opt_paren_args
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_QCALL($2, $1, $3, $5);
                        nd_set_line($$, $<num>4);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(call, $1, $2, $3);
                        $$ = method_optarg($$, $5);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value tCOLON2 operation2
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $<num>$ = ruby_sourceline;
                    /*% %*/
                    }
                  paren_args
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_CALL($1, $3, $5);
                        nd_set_line($$, $<num>4);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(call, $1, ripper_id2sym(idCOLON2), $3);
                        $$ = method_optarg($$, $5);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value tCOLON2 operation3
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_CALL($1, $3, 0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(call, $1, ID2SYM(idCOLON2), $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value call_op
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $<num>$ = ruby_sourceline;
                    /*% %*/
                    }
                  paren_args
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_QCALL($2, $1, idCall, $4);
                        nd_set_line($$, $<num>3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(call, $1, $2, ID2SYM(idCall));
                        $$ = method_optarg($$, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value tCOLON2
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $<num>$ = ruby_sourceline;
                    /*% %*/
                    }
                  paren_args
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_CALL($1, idCall, $4);
                        nd_set_line($$, $<num>3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(call, $1, ID2SYM(idCOLON2),
                                       ID2SYM(idCall));
                        $$ = method_optarg($$, $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_super paren_args
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_SUPER($2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(super, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_super
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_ZSUPER();
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(zsuper);
                    %*/
                    }
                | primary_value '[' opt_call_args rbracket
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if ($1 && nd_type($1) == NODE_SELF)
                            $$ = NEW_FCALL(tAREF, $3);
                        else
                            $$ = NEW_CALL($1, tAREF, $3);
                        fixpos($$, $1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(aref, $1, escape_Qundef($3));
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

brace_block     : '{'
                    {
                        $<vars>1 = dyna_push();
                    /*%%%*/
                        $<num>$ = ruby_sourceline;
                    /*%
                    %*/
                    }
                  opt_block_param
                  compstmt '}'
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_ITER($3,$4);
                        nd_set_line($$, $<num>2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(brace_block, escape_Qundef($3), $4);
                    %*/
                        dyna_pop($<vars>1);
                    }
                | keyword_do
                    {
                        $<vars>1 = dyna_push();
                    /*%%%*/
                        $<num>$ = ruby_sourceline;
                    /*%
                    %*/
                    }
                  opt_block_param
                  compstmt keyword_end
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_ITER($3,$4);
                        nd_set_line($$, $<num>2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(do_block, escape_Qundef($3), $4);
                    %*/
                        dyna_pop($<vars>1);
                    }
                ;

case_body       : keyword_when args then
                  compstmt
                  cases
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_WHEN($2, $4, $5);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch3(when, $2, $4, escape_Qundef($5));
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

cases           : opt_else
                | case_body
                ;

opt_rescue      : keyword_rescue exc_list exc_var then
                  compstmt
                  opt_rescue
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if ($3) {
                            $3 = node_assign($3, NEW_ERRINFO());
                            $5 = block_append($3, $5);
                        }
                        $$ = NEW_RESBODY($2, $5, $6);
                        fixpos($$, $2?$2:$5);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch4(rescue,
                                       escape_Qundef($2),
                                       escape_Qundef($3),
                                       escape_Qundef($5),
                                       escape_Qundef($6));
                    %*/
                    }
                | none
                ;

exc_list        : arg_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_LIST($1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_ary_new3(1, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | mrhs
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (!($$ = splat_array($1))) $$ = $1;
                    /*%
                        $$ = $1;
                    %*/
                    }
                | none
                ;

exc_var         : tASSOC lhs
                    {
                        $$ = $2;
                    }
                | none
                ;

opt_ensure      : keyword_ensure compstmt
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(ensure, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | none
                ;

literal         : numeric
                | symbol
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_LIT(ID2SYM($1));
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(symbol_literal, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | dsym
                ;

strings         : string
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *node = $1;
                        if (!node) {
                            node = NEW_STR(STR_NEW0());
                        }
                        else {
                            node = evstr2dstr(node);
                        }
                        $$ = node;
                    /*%
                        $$ = $1;
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

string          : tCHAR
                | string1
                | string string1
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = literal_concat($1, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(string_concat, $1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

string1         : tSTRING_BEG string_contents tSTRING_END
                    {
                        heredoc_dedent($2);
                        heredoc_indent = 0;
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(string_literal, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

xstring         : tXSTRING_BEG xstring_contents tSTRING_END
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *node = $2;
                    /*%
                    %*/
                        heredoc_dedent($2);
                        heredoc_indent = 0;
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (!node) {
                            node = NEW_XSTR(STR_NEW0());
                        }
                        else {
                            switch (nd_type(node)) {
                              case NODE_STR:
                                nd_set_type(node, NODE_XSTR);
                                break;
                              case NODE_DSTR:
                                nd_set_type(node, NODE_DXSTR);
                                break;
                              default:
                                node = NEW_NODE(NODE_DXSTR, Qnil, 1, NEW_LIST(node));
                                break;
                            }
                        }
                        $$ = node;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(xstring_literal, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

regexp          : tREGEXP_BEG regexp_contents tREGEXP_END
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        int options = $3;
                        NODE *node = $2;
                        NODE *list, *prev;
                        if (!node) {
                            node = NEW_LIT(reg_compile(STR_NEW0(), options));
                        }
                        else switch (nd_type(node)) {
                          case NODE_STR:
                            {
                                VALUE src = node->nd_lit;
                                nd_set_type(node, NODE_LIT);
                                node->nd_lit = reg_compile(src, options);
                            }
                            break;
                          default:
                            node = NEW_NODE(NODE_DSTR, STR_NEW0(), 1, NEW_LIST(node));
                          case NODE_DSTR:
                            if (options & RE_OPTION_ONCE) {
                                nd_set_type(node, NODE_DREGX_ONCE);
                            }
                            else {
                                nd_set_type(node, NODE_DREGX);
                            }
                            node->nd_cflag = options & RE_OPTION_MASK;
                            if (!NIL_P(node->nd_lit)) reg_fragment_check(node->nd_lit, options);
                            for (list = (prev = node)->nd_next; list; list = list->nd_next) {
                                if (nd_type(list->nd_head) == NODE_STR) {
                                    VALUE tail = list->nd_head->nd_lit;
                                    if (reg_fragment_check(tail, options) && prev && !NIL_P(prev->nd_lit)) {
                                        VALUE lit = prev == node ? prev->nd_lit : prev->nd_head->nd_lit;
                                        if (!literal_concat0(parser, lit, tail)) {
                                            node = 0;
                                            break;
                                        }
                                        rb_str_resize(tail, 0);
                                        prev->nd_next = list->nd_next;
                                        rb_gc_force_recycle((VALUE)list->nd_head);
                                        rb_gc_force_recycle((VALUE)list);
                                        list = prev;
                                    }
                                    else {
                                        prev = list;
                                    }
                                }
                                else {
                                    prev = 0;
                                }
                            }
                            if (!node->nd_next) {
                                VALUE src = node->nd_lit;
                                nd_set_type(node, NODE_LIT);
                                node->nd_lit = reg_compile(src, options);
                            }
                            break;
                        }
                        $$ = node;
                    /*%
                        VALUE re = $2, opt = $3, src = 0, err;
                        int options = 0;
                        if (ripper_is_node_yylval(re)) {
                            $2 = RNODE(re)->nd_rval;
                            src = RNODE(re)->nd_cval;
                        }
                        if (ripper_is_node_yylval(opt)) {
                            $3 = RNODE(opt)->nd_rval;
                            options = (int)RNODE(opt)->nd_tag;
                        }
                        if (src && NIL_P(rb_parser_reg_compile(parser, src, options, &err))) {
                            compile_error(PARSER_ARG "%"PRIsVALUE, err);
                        }
                        $$ = dispatch2(regexp_literal, $2, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

words           : tWORDS_BEG ' ' tSTRING_END
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_ZARRAY();
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(words_new);
                        $$ = dispatch1(array, $$);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tWORDS_BEG word_list tSTRING_END
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(array, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

word_list       : /* none */
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(words_new);
                    %*/
                    }
                | word_list word ' '
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = list_append($1, evstr2dstr($2));
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(words_add, $1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

word            : string_content
                    /*%c%*/
                    /*%c
                    {
                        $$ = dispatch0(word_new);
                        $$ = dispatch2(word_add, $$, $1);
                    }
                    %*/
                | word string_content
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = literal_concat($1, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(word_add, $1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

symbols         : tSYMBOLS_BEG ' ' tSTRING_END
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_ZARRAY();
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(symbols_new);
                        $$ = dispatch1(array, $$);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tSYMBOLS_BEG symbol_list tSTRING_END
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(array, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

symbol_list     : /* none */
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(symbols_new);
                    %*/
                    }
                | symbol_list word ' '
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $2 = evstr2dstr($2);
                        if (nd_type($2) == NODE_DSTR) {
                            nd_set_type($2, NODE_DSYM);
                        }
                        else {
                            nd_set_type($2, NODE_LIT);
                            $2->nd_lit = rb_str_intern($2->nd_lit);
                        }
                        $$ = list_append($1, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(symbols_add, $1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

qwords          : tQWORDS_BEG ' ' tSTRING_END
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_ZARRAY();
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(qwords_new);
                        $$ = dispatch1(array, $$);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tQWORDS_BEG qword_list tSTRING_END
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(array, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

qsymbols        : tQSYMBOLS_BEG ' ' tSTRING_END
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_ZARRAY();
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(qsymbols_new);
                        $$ = dispatch1(array, $$);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tQSYMBOLS_BEG qsym_list tSTRING_END
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(array, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

qword_list      : /* none */
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(qwords_new);
                    %*/
                    }
                | qword_list tSTRING_CONTENT ' '
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = list_append($1, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(qwords_add, $1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

qsym_list       : /* none */
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(qsymbols_new);
                    %*/
                    }
                | qsym_list tSTRING_CONTENT ' '
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        VALUE lit;
                        lit = $2->nd_lit;
                        $2->nd_lit = ID2SYM(rb_intern_str(lit));
                        nd_set_type($2, NODE_LIT);
                        $$ = list_append($1, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(qsymbols_add, $1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

string_contents : /* none */
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(string_content);
                    %*/
                    }
                | string_contents string_content
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = literal_concat($1, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(string_add, $1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

xstring_contents: /* none */
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch0(xstring_new);
                    %*/
                    }
                | xstring_contents string_content
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = literal_concat($1, $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(xstring_add, $1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

regexp_contents: /* none */
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = ripper_new_yylval(0, dispatch0(regexp_new), 0);
                    %*/
                    }
                | regexp_contents string_content
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *head = $1, *tail = $2;
                        if (!head) {
                            $$ = tail;
                        }
                        else if (!tail) {
                            $$ = head;
                        }
                        else {
                            switch (nd_type(head)) {
                              case NODE_STR:
                                nd_set_type(head, NODE_DSTR);
                                break;
                              case NODE_DSTR:
                                break;
                              default:
                                head = list_append(NEW_DSTR(Qnil), head);
                                break;
                            }
                            $$ = list_append(head, tail);
                        }
                    /*%
                        VALUE s1 = 1, s2 = 0, n1 = $1, n2 = $2;
                        if (ripper_is_node_yylval(n1)) {
                            s1 = RNODE(n1)->nd_cval;
                            n1 = RNODE(n1)->nd_rval;
                        }
                        if (ripper_is_node_yylval(n2)) {
                            s2 = RNODE(n2)->nd_cval;
                            n2 = RNODE(n2)->nd_rval;
                        }
                        $$ = dispatch2(regexp_add, n1, n2);
                        if (!s1 && s2) {
                            $$ = ripper_new_yylval(0, $$, s2);
                        }
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

string_content  : tSTRING_CONTENT
                | tSTRING_DVAR
                    {
                        $<node>$ = lex_strterm;
                        lex_strterm = 0;
                        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
                    }
                  string_dvar
                    {
                        lex_strterm = $<node>2;
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_EVSTR($3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(string_dvar, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tSTRING_DBEG
                    {
                        $<val>1 = cond_stack;
                        $<val>$ = cmdarg_stack;
                        COND_SET(0);
                        CMDARG_SET(0);
                    }
                    {
                        $<node>$ = lex_strterm;
                        lex_strterm = 0;
                    }
                    {
                        $<num>$ = lex_state;
                        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
                    }
                    {
                        $<num>$ = brace_nest;
                        brace_nest = 0;
                    }
                    {
                        $<num>$ = heredoc_indent;
                        heredoc_indent = 0;
                    }
                  compstmt tSTRING_DEND
                    {
                        COND_SET($<val>1);
                        CMDARG_SET($<val>2);
                        lex_strterm = $<node>3;
                        SET_LEX_STATE($<num>4);
                        brace_nest = $<num>5;
                        heredoc_indent = $<num>6;
                        heredoc_line_indent = -1;
                    /*%%%*/
                        if ($7) $7->flags &= ~NODE_FL_NEWLINE;
                        $$ = new_evstr($7);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(string_embexpr, $7);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

string_dvar     : tGVAR
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_GVAR($1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(var_ref, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tIVAR
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_IVAR($1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(var_ref, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tCVAR
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_CVAR($1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(var_ref, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | backref
                ;

symbol          : tSYMBEG sym
                    {
                        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_END);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(symbol, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

sym             : fname
                | tIVAR
                | tGVAR
                | tCVAR
                ;

dsym            : tSYMBEG xstring_contents tSTRING_END
                    {
                        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_END);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = dsym_node($2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(dyna_symbol, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

numeric         : simple_numeric
                | tUMINUS_NUM simple_numeric   %prec tLOWEST
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                        $$->nd_lit = negate_lit($$->nd_lit);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(unary, ID2SYM(idUMinus), $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

simple_numeric  : tINTEGER
                | tFLOAT
                | tRATIONAL
                | tIMAGINARY
                ;

user_variable   : tIDENTIFIER
                | tIVAR
                | tGVAR
                | tCONSTANT
                | tCVAR
                ;

keyword_variable: keyword_nil {ifndef_ripper($$ = keyword_nil);}
                | keyword_self {ifndef_ripper($$ = keyword_self);}
                | keyword_true {ifndef_ripper($$ = keyword_true);}
                | keyword_false {ifndef_ripper($$ = keyword_false);}
                | keyword__FILE__ {ifndef_ripper($$ = keyword__FILE__);}
                | keyword__LINE__ {ifndef_ripper($$ = keyword__LINE__);}
                | keyword__ENCODING__ {ifndef_ripper($$ = keyword__ENCODING__);}
                ;

var_ref         : user_variable
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (!($$ = gettable($1))) $$ = NEW_BEGIN(0);
                    /*%
                        if (id_is_var(get_id($1))) {
                            $$ = dispatch1(var_ref, $1);
                        }
                        else {
                            $$ = dispatch1(vcall, $1);
                        }
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_variable
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (!($$ = gettable($1))) $$ = NEW_BEGIN(0);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(var_ref, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

var_lhs         : user_variable
                    {
                        $$ = assignable($1, 0);
                    /*%%%*/
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(var_field, $$);
                    %*/
                    }
                | keyword_variable
                    {
                        $$ = assignable($1, 0);
                    /*%%%*/
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(var_field, $$);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

backref         : tNTH_REF
                | tBACK_REF
                ;

superclass      : '<'
                    {
                        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
                        command_start = TRUE;
                    }
                  expr_value term
                    {
                        $$ = $3;
                    }
                | /* none */
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = Qnil;
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

f_arglist       : '(' f_args rparen
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(paren, $2);
                    %*/
                        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
                        command_start = TRUE;
                    }
                |   {
                        $<num>$ = parser->in_kwarg;
                        parser->in_kwarg = 1;
                        lex_state |= EXPR_LABEL; /* force for args */
                    }
                    f_args term
                    {
                        parser->in_kwarg = !!$<num>1;
                        $$ = $2;
                        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
                        command_start = TRUE;
                    }
                ;

args_tail       : f_kwarg ',' f_kwrest opt_f_block_arg
                    {
                        $$ = new_args_tail($1, $3, $4);
                    }
                | f_kwarg opt_f_block_arg
                    {
                        $$ = new_args_tail($1, Qnone, $2);
                    }
                | f_kwrest opt_f_block_arg
                    {
                        $$ = new_args_tail(Qnone, $1, $2);
                    }
                | f_block_arg
                    {
                        $$ = new_args_tail(Qnone, Qnone, $1);
                    }
                ;

opt_args_tail   : ',' args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = $2;
                    }
                | /* none */
                    {
                        $$ = new_args_tail(Qnone, Qnone, Qnone);
                    }
                ;

f_args          : f_arg ',' f_optarg ',' f_rest_arg opt_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, $3, $5, Qnone, $6);
                    }
                | f_arg ',' f_optarg ',' f_rest_arg ',' f_arg opt_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, $3, $5, $7, $8);
                    }
                | f_arg ',' f_optarg opt_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, $3, Qnone, Qnone, $4);
                    }
                | f_arg ',' f_optarg ',' f_arg opt_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, $3, Qnone, $5, $6);
                    }
                | f_arg ',' f_rest_arg opt_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, Qnone, $3, Qnone, $4);
                    }
                | f_arg ',' f_rest_arg ',' f_arg opt_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, Qnone, $3, $5, $6);
                    }
                | f_arg opt_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args($1, Qnone, Qnone, Qnone, $2);
                    }
                | f_optarg ',' f_rest_arg opt_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, $1, $3, Qnone, $4);
                    }
                | f_optarg ',' f_rest_arg ',' f_arg opt_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, $1, $3, $5, $6);
                    }
                | f_optarg opt_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, $1, Qnone, Qnone, $2);
                    }
                | f_optarg ',' f_arg opt_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, $1, Qnone, $3, $4);
                    }
                | f_rest_arg opt_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, Qnone, $1, Qnone, $2);
                    }
                | f_rest_arg ',' f_arg opt_args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, Qnone, $1, $3, $4);
                    }
                | args_tail
                    {
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, Qnone, Qnone, Qnone, $1);
                    }
                | /* none */
                    {
                        $$ = new_args_tail(Qnone, Qnone, Qnone);
                        $$ = new_args(Qnone, Qnone, Qnone, Qnone, $$);
                    }
                ;

f_bad_arg       : tCONSTANT
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        yyerror("formal argument cannot be a constant");
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(param_error, $1);
                        ripper_error();
                    %*/
                    }
                | tIVAR
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        yyerror("formal argument cannot be an instance variable");
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(param_error, $1);
                        ripper_error();
                    %*/
                    }
                | tGVAR
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        yyerror("formal argument cannot be a global variable");
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(param_error, $1);
                        ripper_error();
                    %*/
                    }
                | tCVAR
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        yyerror("formal argument cannot be a class variable");
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(param_error, $1);
                        ripper_error();
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

f_norm_arg      : f_bad_arg
                | tIDENTIFIER
                    {
                        formal_argument(get_id($1));
                        $$ = $1;
                    }
                ;

f_arg_asgn      : f_norm_arg
                    {
                        ID id = get_id($1);
                        arg_var(id);
                        current_arg = id;
                        $$ = $1;
                    }
                ;

f_arg_item      : f_arg_asgn
                    {
                        current_arg = 0;
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_ARGS_AUX($1, 1);
                    /*%
                        $$ = get_value($1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tLPAREN f_margs rparen
                    {
                        ID tid = internal_id();
                        arg_var(tid);
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (dyna_in_block()) {
                            $2->nd_value = NEW_DVAR(tid);
                        }
                        else {
                            $2->nd_value = NEW_LVAR(tid);
                        }
                        $$ = NEW_ARGS_AUX(tid, 1);
                        $$->nd_next = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(mlhs_paren, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

f_arg           : f_arg_item
                    /*%c%*/
                    /*%c
                    {
                        $$ = rb_ary_new3(1, $1);
                    }
                    c%*/
                | f_arg ',' f_arg_item
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $1;
                        $$->nd_plen++;
                        $$->nd_next = block_append($$->nd_next, $3->nd_next);
                        rb_gc_force_recycle((VALUE)$3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_ary_push($1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;


f_label         : tLABEL
                    {
                        ID id = get_id($1);
                        arg_var(formal_argument(id));
                        current_arg = id;
                        $$ = $1;
                    }
                ;

f_kw            : f_label arg_value
                    {
                        current_arg = 0;
                        $$ = assignable($1, $2);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = new_kw_arg($$);
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_assoc_new($$, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | f_label
                    {
                        current_arg = 0;
                        $$ = assignable($1, (NODE *)-1);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = new_kw_arg($$);
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_assoc_new($$, 0);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

f_block_kw      : f_label primary_value
                    {
                        $$ = assignable($1, $2);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = new_kw_arg($$);
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_assoc_new($$, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | f_label
                    {
                        $$ = assignable($1, (NODE *)-1);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = new_kw_arg($$);
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_assoc_new($$, 0);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

f_block_kwarg   : f_block_kw
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $1;
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_ary_new3(1, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | f_block_kwarg ',' f_block_kw
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = kwd_append($1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_ary_push($1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;


f_kwarg         : f_kw
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $1;
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_ary_new3(1, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | f_kwarg ',' f_kw
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = kwd_append($1, $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_ary_push($1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

kwrest_mark     : tPOW
                | tDSTAR
                ;

f_kwrest        : kwrest_mark tIDENTIFIER
                    {
                        shadowing_lvar(get_id($2));
                        $$ = $2;
                    }
                | kwrest_mark
                    {
                        $$ = internal_id();
                        arg_var($$);
                    }
                ;

f_opt           : f_arg_asgn '=' arg_value
                    {
                        current_arg = 0;
                        $$ = assignable($1, $3);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_OPT_ARG(0, $$);
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_assoc_new($$, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

f_block_opt     : f_arg_asgn '=' primary_value
                    {
                        current_arg = 0;
                        $$ = assignable($1, $3);
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = NEW_OPT_ARG(0, $$);
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_assoc_new($$, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

f_block_optarg  : f_block_opt
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $1;
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_ary_new3(1, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | f_block_optarg ',' f_block_opt
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *opts = $1;

                        while (opts->nd_next) {
                            opts = opts->nd_next;
                        }
                        opts->nd_next = $3;
                        $$ = $1;
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_ary_push($1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

f_optarg        : f_opt
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $1;
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_ary_new3(1, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                | f_optarg ',' f_opt
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *opts = $1;

                        while (opts->nd_next) {
                            opts = opts->nd_next;
                        }
                        opts->nd_next = $3;
                        $$ = $1;
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_ary_push($1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

restarg_mark    : '*'
                | tSTAR
                ;

f_rest_arg      : restarg_mark tIDENTIFIER
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (!is_local_id($2))
                            yyerror("rest argument must be local variable");
                    /*% %*/
                        arg_var(shadowing_lvar(get_id($2)));
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(rest_param, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | restarg_mark
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = internal_id();
                        arg_var($$);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(rest_param, Qnil);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

blkarg_mark     : '&'
                | tAMPER
                ;

f_block_arg     : blkarg_mark tIDENTIFIER
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (!is_local_id($2))
                            yyerror("block argument must be local variable");
                        else if (!dyna_in_block() && local_id($2))
                            yyerror("duplicated block argument name");
                    /*% %*/
                        arg_var(shadowing_lvar(get_id($2)));
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(blockarg, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

opt_f_block_arg : ',' f_block_arg
                    {
                        $$ = $2;
                    }
                | none
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = Qundef;
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

singleton       : var_ref
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        value_expr($1);
                        $$ = $1;
                        if (!$$) $$ = NEW_NIL();
                    /*%
                        $$ = $1;
                    %*/
                    }
                | '(' {SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);} expr rparen
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if ($3 == 0) {
                            yyerror("can't define singleton method for ().");
                        }
                        else {
                            switch (nd_type($3)) {
                              case NODE_STR:
                              case NODE_DSTR:
                              case NODE_XSTR:
                              case NODE_DXSTR:
                              case NODE_DREGX:
                              case NODE_LIT:
                              case NODE_ARRAY:
                              case NODE_ZARRAY:
                                yyerror("can't define singleton method for literals");
                              default:
                                value_expr($3);
                                break;
                            }
                        }
                        $$ = $3;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(paren, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

assoc_list      : none
                | assocs trailer
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = $1;
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(assoclist_from_args, $1);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

assocs          : assoc
                    /*%c%*/
                    /*%c
                    {
                        $$ = rb_ary_new3(1, $1);
                    }
                    %*/
                | assocs ',' assoc
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        NODE *assocs = $1;
                        NODE *tail = $3;
                        if (!assocs) {
                            assocs = tail;
                        }
                        else if (tail) {
                            if (assocs->nd_head &&
                                !tail->nd_head && nd_type(tail->nd_next) == NODE_ARRAY &&
                                nd_type(tail->nd_next->nd_head) == NODE_HASH) {
                                /* DSTAR */
                                tail = tail->nd_next->nd_head->nd_head;
                            }
                            assocs = list_concat(assocs, tail);
                        }
                        $$ = assocs;
                    /*%
                        $$ = rb_ary_push($1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

assoc           : arg_value tASSOC arg_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (nd_type($1) == NODE_STR) {
                            nd_set_type($1, NODE_LIT);
                            $1->nd_lit = rb_fstring($1->nd_lit);
                        }
                        $$ = list_append(NEW_LIST($1), $3);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(assoc_new, $1, $3);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tLABEL arg_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = list_append(NEW_LIST(NEW_LIT(ID2SYM($1))), $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(assoc_new, $1, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tSTRING_BEG string_contents tLABEL_END arg_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = list_append(NEW_LIST(dsym_node($2)), $4);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch2(assoc_new, dispatch1(dyna_symbol, $2), $4);
                    %*/
                    }
                | tDSTAR arg_value
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        if (nd_type($2) == NODE_HASH &&
                            !($2->nd_head && $2->nd_head->nd_alen))
                            $$ = 0;
                        else
                            $$ = list_append(NEW_LIST(0), $2);
                    /*%
                        $$ = dispatch1(assoc_splat, $2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

operation       : tIDENTIFIER
                | tCONSTANT
                | tFID
                ;

operation2      : tIDENTIFIER
                | tCONSTANT
                | tFID
                | op
                ;

operation3      : tIDENTIFIER
                | tFID
                | op
                ;

dot_or_colon    : '.'
                    /*%c%*/
                    /*%c
                    { $$ = $<val>1; }
                    %*/
                | tCOLON2
                    /*%c%*/
                    /*%c
                    { $$ = $<val>1; }
                    %*/
                ;

call_op         : '.'
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = '.';
                    /*%
                        $$ = ripper_id2sym('.');
                    %*/
                    }
                | tANDDOT
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = tANDDOT;
                    /*%
                        $$ = ripper_id2sym(idANDDOT);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

call_op2        : call_op
                | tCOLON2
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = tCOLON2;
                    /*%
                        $$ = ripper_id2sym(idCOLON2);
                    %*/
                    }
                ;

opt_terms       : /* none */
                | terms
                ;

opt_nl          : /* none */
                | '\n'
                ;

rparen          : opt_nl ')'
                ;

rbracket        : opt_nl ']'
                ;

trailer         : /* none */
                | '\n'
                | ','
                ;

term            : ';' {yyerrok;}
                | '\n'
                ;

terms           : term
                | terms ';' {yyerrok;}
                ;

none            : /* none */
                    {
                    /*%%%*/
                        $$ = 0;
                    /*%
                        $$ = Qundef;
                    %*/
                    }
                ;
%%
# undef parser
# undef yylex
# undef yylval
# define yylval  (*parser->lval)

static int parser_regx_options(struct parser_params*);
static int parser_tokadd_string(struct parser_params*,int,int,int,long*,rb_encoding**);
static void parser_tokaddmbc(struct parser_params *parser, int c, rb_encoding *enc);
static int parser_parse_string(struct parser_params*,NODE*);
static int parser_here_document(struct parser_params*,NODE*);


# define nextc()                      parser_nextc(parser)
# define pushback(c)                  parser_pushback(parser, (c))
# define newtok()                     parser_newtok(parser)
# define tokspace(n)                  parser_tokspace(parser, (n))
# define tokadd(c)                    parser_tokadd(parser, (c))
# define tok_hex(numlen)              parser_tok_hex(parser, (numlen))
# define read_escape(flags,e)         parser_read_escape(parser, (flags), (e))
# define tokadd_escape(e)             parser_tokadd_escape(parser, (e))
# define regx_options()               parser_regx_options(parser)
# define tokadd_string(f,t,p,n,e)     parser_tokadd_string(parser,(f),(t),(p),(n),(e))
# define parse_string(n)              parser_parse_string(parser,(n))
# define tokaddmbc(c, enc)            parser_tokaddmbc(parser, (c), (enc))
# define here_document(n)             parser_here_document(parser,(n))
# define heredoc_identifier()         parser_heredoc_identifier(parser)
# define heredoc_restore(n)           parser_heredoc_restore(parser,(n))
# define whole_match_p(e,l,i)         parser_whole_match_p(parser,(e),(l),(i))
# define number_literal_suffix(f)     parser_number_literal_suffix(parser, (f))
# define set_number_literal(v, t, f)  parser_set_number_literal(parser, (v), (t), (f))
# define set_integer_literal(v, f)    parser_set_integer_literal(parser, (v), (f))

#ifndef RIPPER
# define set_yylval_str(x) (yylval.node = NEW_STR(x))
# define set_yylval_num(x) (yylval.num = (x))
# define set_yylval_id(x)  (yylval.id = (x))
# define set_yylval_name(x)  (yylval.id = (x))
# define set_yylval_literal(x) (yylval.node = NEW_LIT(x))
# define set_yylval_node(x) (yylval.node = (x))
# define yylval_id() (yylval.id)
#else
static inline VALUE
ripper_yylval_id(ID x)
{
    return ripper_new_yylval(x, ID2SYM(x), 0);
}
# define set_yylval_str(x) (yylval.val = (x))
# define set_yylval_num(x) (yylval.val = ripper_new_yylval((x), 0, 0))
# define set_yylval_id(x)  (void)(x)
# define set_yylval_name(x) (void)(yylval.val = ripper_yylval_id(x))
# define set_yylval_literal(x) (void)(x)
# define set_yylval_node(x) (void)(x)
# define yylval_id() yylval.id
#endif

#ifndef RIPPER
#define ripper_flush(p) (void)(p)
#define dispatch_scan_event(t) ((void)0)
#define dispatch_delayed_token(t) ((void)0)
#define has_delayed_token() (0)
#else
#define ripper_flush(p) ((p)->tokp = (p)->lex.pcur)

#define yylval_rval (*(RB_TYPE_P(yylval.val, T_NODE) ? &yylval.node->nd_rval : &yylval.val))

static inline VALUE
intern_sym(const char *name)
{
    ID id = rb_intern_const(name);
    return ID2SYM(id);
}

static int
ripper_has_scan_event(struct parser_params *parser)
{

    if (lex_p < parser->tokp) rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "lex_p < tokp");
    return lex_p > parser->tokp;
}

static VALUE
ripper_scan_event_val(struct parser_params *parser, int t)
{
    VALUE str = STR_NEW(parser->tokp, lex_p - parser->tokp);
    VALUE rval = ripper_dispatch1(parser, ripper_token2eventid(t), str);
    ripper_flush(parser);
    return rval;
}

static void
ripper_dispatch_scan_event(struct parser_params *parser, int t)
{
    if (!ripper_has_scan_event(parser)) return;
    yylval_rval = ripper_scan_event_val(parser, t);
}
#define dispatch_scan_event(t) ripper_dispatch_scan_event(parser, t)

static void
ripper_dispatch_delayed_token(struct parser_params *parser, int t)
{
    int saved_line = ruby_sourceline;
    const char *saved_tokp = parser->tokp;

    ruby_sourceline = parser->delayed_line;
    parser->tokp = lex_pbeg + parser->delayed_col;
    yylval_rval = ripper_dispatch1(parser, ripper_token2eventid(t), parser->delayed);
    parser->delayed = Qnil;
    ruby_sourceline = saved_line;
    parser->tokp = saved_tokp;
}
#define dispatch_delayed_token(t) ripper_dispatch_delayed_token(parser, t)
#define has_delayed_token() (!NIL_P(parser->delayed))
#endif /* RIPPER */

#include "ruby/regex.h"
#include "ruby/util.h"

#define parser_encoding_name()  (current_enc->name)
#define parser_mbclen()  mbclen((lex_p-1),lex_pend,current_enc)
#define parser_precise_mbclen()  rb_enc_precise_mbclen((lex_p-1),lex_pend,current_enc)
#define is_identchar(p,e,enc) (rb_enc_isalnum((unsigned char)(*(p)),(enc)) || (*(p)) == '_' || !ISASCII(*(p)))
#define parser_is_identchar() (!parser->eofp && is_identchar((lex_p-1),lex_pend,current_enc))

#define parser_isascii() ISASCII(*(lex_p-1))

static int
token_info_get_column(struct parser_params *parser, const char *pend)
{
    int column = 1;
    const char *p;
    for (p = lex_pbeg; p < pend; p++) {
        if (*p == '\t') {
            column = (((column - 1) / TAB_WIDTH) + 1) * TAB_WIDTH;
        }
        column++;
    }
    return column;
}

static int
token_info_has_nonspaces(struct parser_params *parser, const char *pend)
{
    const char *p;
    for (p = lex_pbeg; p < pend; p++) {
        if (*p != ' ' && *p != '\t') {
            return 1;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}

static void
token_info_push_gen(struct parser_params *parser, const char *token, size_t len)
{
    token_info *ptinfo;
    const char *t = lex_p - len;

    if (!parser->token_info_enabled) return;
    ptinfo = ALLOC(token_info);
    ptinfo->token = token;
    ptinfo->linenum = ruby_sourceline;
    ptinfo->column = token_info_get_column(parser, t);
    ptinfo->nonspc = token_info_has_nonspaces(parser, t);
    ptinfo->next = parser->token_info;

    parser->token_info = ptinfo;
}

static void
token_info_pop_gen(struct parser_params *parser, const char *token, size_t len)
{
    int linenum;
    token_info *ptinfo = parser->token_info;
    const char *t = lex_p - len;

    if (!ptinfo) return;
    parser->token_info = ptinfo->next;
    linenum = ruby_sourceline;
    if (parser->token_info_enabled &&
        linenum != ptinfo->linenum && !ptinfo->nonspc &&
        !token_info_has_nonspaces(parser, t) &&
        token_info_get_column(parser, t) != ptinfo->column) {
        rb_warn3L(linenum,
                  "mismatched indentations at '%s' with '%s' at %d",
                  WARN_S(token), WARN_S(ptinfo->token), WARN_I(ptinfo->linenum));
    }

    xfree(ptinfo);
}

static int
parser_yyerror(struct parser_params *parser, const char *msg)
{
#ifndef RIPPER
    const int max_line_margin = 30;
    const char *p, *pe;
    const char *pre = "", *post = "";
    const char *code = "", *caret = "", *newline = "";
    char *buf;
    long len;
    int i;

    p = lex_p;
    while (lex_pbeg <= p) {
        if (*p == '\n') break;
        p--;
    }
    p++;

    pe = lex_p;
    while (pe < lex_pend) {
        if (*pe == '\n') break;
        pe++;
    }

    len = pe - p;
    if (len > 4) {
        char *p2;

        if (len > max_line_margin * 2 + 10) {
            if (lex_p - p > max_line_margin) {
                p = rb_enc_prev_char(p, lex_p - max_line_margin, pe, rb_enc_get(lex_lastline));
                pre = "...";
            }
            if (pe - lex_p > max_line_margin) {
                pe = rb_enc_prev_char(lex_p, lex_p + max_line_margin, pe, rb_enc_get(lex_lastline));
                post = "...";
            }
            len = pe - p;
        }
        i = (int)(lex_p - p);
        buf = ALLOCA_N(char, i+2);
        code = p;
        caret = p2 = buf;
        while (i-- > 0) {
            *p2++ = *p++ == '\t' ? '\t' : ' ';
        }
        *p2++ = '^';
        *p2 = '\0';
        newline = "\n";
    }
    else {
        len = 0;
    }
    compile_error(PARSER_ARG "%s%s""%s%.*s%s%s""%s%s",
                  msg, newline,
                  pre, (int)len, code, post, newline,
                  pre, caret);
#else
    dispatch1(parse_error, STR_NEW2(msg));
    ripper_error();
#endif /* !RIPPER */
    return 0;
}

static void parser_prepare(struct parser_params *parser);

#ifndef RIPPER
static VALUE
debug_lines(VALUE fname)
{
    ID script_lines;
    CONST_ID(script_lines, "SCRIPT_LINES__");
    if (rb_const_defined_at(rb_cObject, script_lines)) {
        VALUE hash = rb_const_get_at(rb_cObject, script_lines);
        if (RB_TYPE_P(hash, T_HASH)) {
            VALUE lines = rb_ary_new();
            rb_hash_aset(hash, fname, lines);
            return lines;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}

static VALUE
coverage(VALUE fname, int n)
{
    VALUE coverages = rb_get_coverages();
    if (RTEST(coverages) && RBASIC(coverages)->klass == 0) {
        VALUE lines = rb_ary_tmp_new_fill(n);
        rb_hash_aset(coverages, fname, lines);
        return lines;
    }
    return 0;
}

static int
e_option_supplied(struct parser_params *parser)
{
    return strcmp(ruby_sourcefile, "-e") == 0;
}

static VALUE
yycompile0(VALUE arg)
{
    int n;
    NODE *tree;
    struct parser_params *parser = (struct parser_params *)arg;
    VALUE cov = Qfalse;

    if (!compile_for_eval && rb_safe_level() == 0) {
        ruby_debug_lines = debug_lines(ruby_sourcefile_string);
        if (ruby_debug_lines && ruby_sourceline > 0) {
            VALUE str = STR_NEW0();
            n = ruby_sourceline;
            do {
                rb_ary_push(ruby_debug_lines, str);
            } while (--n);
        }

        if (!e_option_supplied(parser)) {
            ruby_coverage = coverage(ruby_sourcefile_string, ruby_sourceline);
            cov = Qtrue;
        }
    }

    parser_prepare(parser);
#ifndef RIPPER
#define RUBY_DTRACE_PARSE_HOOK(name) \
    if (RUBY_DTRACE_PARSE_##name##_ENABLED()) { \
        RUBY_DTRACE_PARSE_##name(ruby_sourcefile, ruby_sourceline); \
    }
    RUBY_DTRACE_PARSE_HOOK(BEGIN);
#endif
    n = yyparse((void*)parser);
#ifndef RIPPER
    RUBY_DTRACE_PARSE_HOOK(END);
#endif
    ruby_debug_lines = 0;
    ruby_coverage = 0;

    lex_strterm = 0;
    lex_p = lex_pbeg = lex_pend = 0;
    lex_lastline = lex_nextline = 0;
    if (parser->error_p) {
        VALUE mesg = parser->error_buffer;
        if (!mesg) {
            mesg = rb_class_new_instance(0, 0, rb_eSyntaxError);
        }
        rb_set_errinfo(mesg);
        return 0;
    }
    tree = ruby_eval_tree;
    if (!tree) {
        tree = NEW_NIL();
    }
    else {
        VALUE opt = parser->compile_option;
        if (!opt) opt = rb_obj_hide(rb_ident_hash_new());
        rb_hash_aset(opt, rb_sym_intern_ascii_cstr("coverage_enabled"), cov);
        tree->nd_body = NEW_PRELUDE(ruby_eval_tree_begin, tree->nd_body, opt);
    }
    return (VALUE)tree;
}

static NODE*
yycompile(struct parser_params *parser, VALUE fname, int line)
{
    ruby_sourcefile_string = rb_str_new_frozen(fname);
    ruby_sourcefile = RSTRING_PTR(fname);
    ruby_sourceline = line - 1;
    return (NODE *)rb_suppress_tracing(yycompile0, (VALUE)parser);
}
#endif /* !RIPPER */

static rb_encoding *
must_be_ascii_compatible(VALUE s)
{
    rb_encoding *enc = rb_enc_get(s);
    if (!rb_enc_asciicompat(enc)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "invalid source encoding");
    }
    return enc;
}

static VALUE
lex_get_str(struct parser_params *parser, VALUE s)
{
    char *beg, *end, *start;
    long len;

    beg = RSTRING_PTR(s);
    len = RSTRING_LEN(s);
    start = beg;
    if (lex_gets_ptr) {
        if (len == lex_gets_ptr) return Qnil;
        beg += lex_gets_ptr;
        len -= lex_gets_ptr;
    }
    end = memchr(beg, '\n', len);
    if (end) len = ++end - beg;
    lex_gets_ptr += len;
    return rb_str_subseq(s, beg - start, len);
}

static VALUE
lex_getline(struct parser_params *parser)
{
    VALUE line = (*lex_gets)(parser, lex_input);
    if (NIL_P(line)) return line;
    must_be_ascii_compatible(line);
#ifndef RIPPER
    if (ruby_debug_lines) {
        rb_enc_associate(line, current_enc);
        rb_ary_push(ruby_debug_lines, line);
    }
    if (ruby_coverage) {
        rb_ary_push(ruby_coverage, Qnil);
    }
#endif
    return line;
}

static const rb_data_type_t parser_data_type;

#ifndef RIPPER
static NODE*
parser_compile_string(VALUE vparser, VALUE fname, VALUE s, int line)
{
    struct parser_params *parser;
    NODE *node;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(vparser, struct parser_params, &parser_data_type, parser);
    lex_gets = lex_get_str;
    lex_gets_ptr = 0;
    lex_input = rb_str_new_frozen(s);
    lex_pbeg = lex_p = lex_pend = 0;

    node = yycompile(parser, fname, line);
    RB_GC_GUARD(vparser); /* prohibit tail call optimization */

    return node;
}

NODE*
rb_compile_string(const char *f, VALUE s, int line)
{
    must_be_ascii_compatible(s);
    return parser_compile_string(rb_parser_new(), rb_filesystem_str_new_cstr(f), s, line);
}

NODE*
rb_parser_compile_string(VALUE vparser, const char *f, VALUE s, int line)
{
    return rb_parser_compile_string_path(vparser, rb_filesystem_str_new_cstr(f), s, line);
}

NODE*
rb_parser_compile_string_path(VALUE vparser, VALUE f, VALUE s, int line)
{
    must_be_ascii_compatible(s);
    return parser_compile_string(vparser, f, s, line);
}

NODE*
rb_compile_cstr(const char *f, const char *s, int len, int line)
{
    VALUE str = rb_str_new(s, len);
    return parser_compile_string(rb_parser_new(), rb_filesystem_str_new_cstr(f), str, line);
}

NODE*
rb_parser_compile_cstr(VALUE vparser, const char *f, const char *s, int len, int line)
{
    VALUE str = rb_str_new(s, len);
    return parser_compile_string(vparser, rb_filesystem_str_new_cstr(f), str, line);
}

VALUE rb_io_gets_internal(VALUE io);

static VALUE
lex_io_gets(struct parser_params *parser, VALUE io)
{
    return rb_io_gets_internal(io);
}

NODE*
rb_compile_file(const char *f, VALUE file, int start)
{
    VALUE vparser = rb_parser_new();

    return rb_parser_compile_file(vparser, f, file, start);
}

NODE*
rb_parser_compile_file(VALUE vparser, const char *f, VALUE file, int start)
{
    return rb_parser_compile_file_path(vparser, rb_filesystem_str_new_cstr(f), file, start);
}

NODE*
rb_parser_compile_file_path(VALUE vparser, VALUE fname, VALUE file, int start)
{
    struct parser_params *parser;
    NODE *node;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(vparser, struct parser_params, &parser_data_type, parser);
    lex_gets = lex_io_gets;
    lex_input = file;
    lex_pbeg = lex_p = lex_pend = 0;

    node = yycompile(parser, fname, start);
    RB_GC_GUARD(vparser); /* prohibit tail call optimization */

    return node;
}
#endif  /* !RIPPER */

#define STR_FUNC_ESCAPE 0x01
#define STR_FUNC_EXPAND 0x02
#define STR_FUNC_REGEXP 0x04
#define STR_FUNC_QWORDS 0x08
#define STR_FUNC_SYMBOL 0x10
#define STR_FUNC_INDENT 0x20
#define STR_FUNC_LABEL  0x40

enum string_type {
    str_label  = STR_FUNC_LABEL,
    str_squote = (0),
    str_dquote = (STR_FUNC_EXPAND),
    str_xquote = (STR_FUNC_EXPAND),
    str_regexp = (STR_FUNC_REGEXP|STR_FUNC_ESCAPE|STR_FUNC_EXPAND),
    str_sword  = (STR_FUNC_QWORDS),
    str_dword  = (STR_FUNC_QWORDS|STR_FUNC_EXPAND),
    str_ssym   = (STR_FUNC_SYMBOL),
    str_dsym   = (STR_FUNC_SYMBOL|STR_FUNC_EXPAND)
};

static VALUE
parser_str_new(const char *p, long n, rb_encoding *enc, int func, rb_encoding *enc0)
{
    VALUE str;

    str = rb_enc_str_new(p, n, enc);
    if (!(func & STR_FUNC_REGEXP) && rb_enc_asciicompat(enc)) {
        if (rb_enc_str_coderange(str) == ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT) {
        }
        else if (enc0 == rb_usascii_encoding() && enc != rb_utf8_encoding()) {
            rb_enc_associate(str, rb_ascii8bit_encoding());
        }
    }

    return str;
}

#define lex_goto_eol(parser) ((parser)->lex.pcur = (parser)->lex.pend)
#define lex_eol_p() (lex_p >= lex_pend)
#define peek(c) peek_n((c), 0)
#define peek_n(c,n) (lex_p+(n) < lex_pend && (c) == (unsigned char)lex_p[n])
#define peekc() peekc_n(0)
#define peekc_n(n) (lex_p+(n) < lex_pend ? (unsigned char)lex_p[n] : -1)

static int
parser_nextline(struct parser_params *parser)
{
    VALUE v = lex_nextline;
    lex_nextline = 0;
    if (!v) {
        if (parser->eofp)
            return -1;

        if (!lex_input || NIL_P(v = lex_getline(parser))) {
            parser->eofp = 1;
            lex_goto_eol(parser);
            return -1;
        }
        parser->cr_seen = FALSE;
    }
#ifdef RIPPER
    if (parser->tokp < lex_pend) {
        if (!has_delayed_token()) {
            parser->delayed = rb_str_buf_new(1024);
            rb_enc_associate(parser->delayed, current_enc);
            rb_str_buf_cat(parser->delayed,
                           parser->tokp, lex_pend - parser->tokp);
            parser->delayed_line = ruby_sourceline;
            parser->delayed_col = (int)(parser->tokp - lex_pbeg);
        }
        else {
            rb_str_buf_cat(parser->delayed,
                           parser->tokp, lex_pend - parser->tokp);
        }
    }
#endif
    if (heredoc_end > 0) {
        ruby_sourceline = heredoc_end;
        heredoc_end = 0;
    }
    ruby_sourceline++;
    parser->line_count++;
    lex_pbeg = lex_p = RSTRING_PTR(v);
    lex_pend = lex_p + RSTRING_LEN(v);
    ripper_flush(parser);
    lex_lastline = v;
    return 0;
}

static int
parser_cr(struct parser_params *parser, int c)
{
    if (peek('\n')) {
        lex_p++;
        c = '\n';
    }
    else if (!parser->cr_seen) {
        parser->cr_seen = TRUE;
        /* carried over with lex_nextline for nextc() */
        rb_warn0("encountered \\r in middle of line, treated as a mere space");
    }
    return c;
}

static inline int
parser_nextc(struct parser_params *parser)
{
    int c;

    if (UNLIKELY(lex_p == lex_pend)) {
        if (parser_nextline(parser)) return -1;
    }
    c = (unsigned char)*lex_p++;
    if (UNLIKELY(c == '\r')) {
        c = parser_cr(parser, c);
    }

    return c;
}

static void
parser_pushback(struct parser_params *parser, int c)
{
    if (c == -1) return;
    lex_p--;
    if (lex_p > lex_pbeg && lex_p[0] == '\n' && lex_p[-1] == '\r') {
        lex_p--;
    }
}

#define was_bol() (lex_p == lex_pbeg + 1)

#define tokfix() (tokenbuf[tokidx]='\0')
#define tok() tokenbuf
#define toklen() tokidx
#define toklast() (tokidx>0?tokenbuf[tokidx-1]:0)

static char*
parser_newtok(struct parser_params *parser)
{
    tokidx = 0;
    tokline = ruby_sourceline;
    if (!tokenbuf) {
        toksiz = 60;
        tokenbuf = ALLOC_N(char, 60);
    }
    if (toksiz > 4096) {
        toksiz = 60;
        REALLOC_N(tokenbuf, char, 60);
    }
    return tokenbuf;
}

static char *
parser_tokspace(struct parser_params *parser, int n)
{
    tokidx += n;

    if (tokidx >= toksiz) {
        do {toksiz *= 2;} while (toksiz < tokidx);
        REALLOC_N(tokenbuf, char, toksiz);
    }
    return &tokenbuf[tokidx-n];
}

static void
parser_tokadd(struct parser_params *parser, int c)
{
    tokenbuf[tokidx++] = (char)c;
    if (tokidx >= toksiz) {
        toksiz *= 2;
        REALLOC_N(tokenbuf, char, toksiz);
    }
}

static int
parser_tok_hex(struct parser_params *parser, size_t *numlen)
{
    int c;

    c = scan_hex(lex_p, 2, numlen);
    if (!*numlen) {
        yyerror("invalid hex escape");
        return 0;
    }
    lex_p += *numlen;
    return c;
}

#define tokcopy(n) memcpy(tokspace(n), lex_p - (n), (n))

/* return value is for ?\u3042 */
static int
parser_tokadd_utf8(struct parser_params *parser, rb_encoding **encp,
                   int string_literal, int symbol_literal, int regexp_literal)
{
    /*
     * If string_literal is true, then we allow multiple codepoints
     * in \u{}, and add the codepoints to the current token.
     * Otherwise we're parsing a character literal and return a single
     * codepoint without adding it
     */

    int codepoint;
    size_t numlen;

    if (regexp_literal) { tokadd('\\'); tokadd('u'); }

    if (peek('{')) {  /* handle \u{...} form */
        do {
            if (regexp_literal) { tokadd(*lex_p); }
            nextc();
            codepoint = scan_hex(lex_p, 6, &numlen);
            if (numlen == 0)  {
                yyerror("invalid Unicode escape");
                return 0;
            }
            if (codepoint > 0x10ffff) {
                yyerror("invalid Unicode codepoint (too large)");
                return 0;
            }
            lex_p += numlen;
            if (regexp_literal) {
                tokcopy((int)numlen);
            }
            else if (codepoint >= 0x80) {
                *encp = rb_utf8_encoding();
                if (string_literal) tokaddmbc(codepoint, *encp);
            }
            else if (string_literal) {
                tokadd(codepoint);
            }
        } while (string_literal && (peek(' ') || peek('\t')));

        if (!peek('}')) {
            yyerror("unterminated Unicode escape");
            return 0;
        }

        if (regexp_literal) { tokadd('}'); }
        nextc();
    }
    else {                      /* handle \uxxxx form */
        codepoint = scan_hex(lex_p, 4, &numlen);
        if (numlen < 4) {
            yyerror("invalid Unicode escape");
            return 0;
        }
        lex_p += 4;
        if (regexp_literal) {
            tokcopy(4);
        }
        else if (codepoint >= 0x80) {
            *encp = rb_utf8_encoding();
            if (string_literal) tokaddmbc(codepoint, *encp);
        }
        else if (string_literal) {
            tokadd(codepoint);
        }
    }

    return codepoint;
}

#define ESCAPE_CONTROL 1
#define ESCAPE_META    2

static int
parser_read_escape(struct parser_params *parser, int flags,
                   rb_encoding **encp)
{
    int c;
    size_t numlen;

    switch (c = nextc()) {
      case '\\':        /* Backslash */
        return c;

      case 'n': /* newline */
        return '\n';

      case 't': /* horizontal tab */
        return '\t';

      case 'r': /* carriage-return */
        return '\r';

      case 'f': /* form-feed */
        return '\f';

      case 'v': /* vertical tab */
        return '\13';

      case 'a': /* alarm(bell) */
        return '\007';

      case 'e': /* escape */
        return 033;

      case '0': case '1': case '2': case '3': /* octal constant */
      case '4': case '5': case '6': case '7':
        pushback(c);
        c = scan_oct(lex_p, 3, &numlen);
        lex_p += numlen;
        return c;

      case 'x': /* hex constant */
        c = tok_hex(&numlen);
        if (numlen == 0) return 0;
        return c;

      case 'b': /* backspace */
        return '\010';

      case 's': /* space */
        return ' ';

      case 'M':
        if (flags & ESCAPE_META) goto eof;
        if ((c = nextc()) != '-') {
            pushback(c);
            goto eof;
        }
        if ((c = nextc()) == '\\') {
            if (peek('u')) goto eof;
            return read_escape(flags|ESCAPE_META, encp) | 0x80;
        }
        else if (c == -1 || !ISASCII(c)) goto eof;
        else {
            return ((c & 0xff) | 0x80);
        }

      case 'C':
        if ((c = nextc()) != '-') {
            pushback(c);
            goto eof;
        }
      case 'c':
        if (flags & ESCAPE_CONTROL) goto eof;
        if ((c = nextc())== '\\') {
            if (peek('u')) goto eof;
            c = read_escape(flags|ESCAPE_CONTROL, encp);
        }
        else if (c == '?')
            return 0177;
        else if (c == -1 || !ISASCII(c)) goto eof;
        return c & 0x9f;

      eof:
      case -1:
        yyerror("Invalid escape character syntax");
        return '\0';

      default:
        return c;
    }
}

static void
parser_tokaddmbc(struct parser_params *parser, int c, rb_encoding *enc)
{
    int len = rb_enc_codelen(c, enc);
    rb_enc_mbcput(c, tokspace(len), enc);
}

static int
parser_tokadd_escape(struct parser_params *parser, rb_encoding **encp)
{
    int c;
    int flags = 0;
    size_t numlen;

  first:
    switch (c = nextc()) {
      case '\n':
        return 0;               /* just ignore */

      case '0': case '1': case '2': case '3': /* octal constant */
      case '4': case '5': case '6': case '7':
        {
            ruby_scan_oct(--lex_p, 3, &numlen);
            if (numlen == 0) goto eof;
            lex_p += numlen;
            tokcopy((int)numlen + 1);
        }
        return 0;

      case 'x': /* hex constant */
        {
            tok_hex(&numlen);
            if (numlen == 0) return -1;
            tokcopy((int)numlen + 2);
        }
        return 0;

      case 'M':
        if (flags & ESCAPE_META) goto eof;
        if ((c = nextc()) != '-') {
            pushback(c);
            goto eof;
        }
        tokcopy(3);
        flags |= ESCAPE_META;
        goto escaped;

      case 'C':
        if (flags & ESCAPE_CONTROL) goto eof;
        if ((c = nextc()) != '-') {
            pushback(c);
            goto eof;
        }
        tokcopy(3);
        goto escaped;

      case 'c':
        if (flags & ESCAPE_CONTROL) goto eof;
        tokcopy(2);
        flags |= ESCAPE_CONTROL;
      escaped:
        if ((c = nextc()) == '\\') {
            goto first;
        }
        else if (c == -1) goto eof;
        tokadd(c);
        return 0;

      eof:
      case -1:
        yyerror("Invalid escape character syntax");
        return -1;

      default:
        tokadd('\\');
        tokadd(c);
    }
    return 0;
}

static int
parser_regx_options(struct parser_params *parser)
{
    int kcode = 0;
    int kopt = 0;
    int options = 0;
    int c, opt, kc;

    newtok();
    while (c = nextc(), ISALPHA(c)) {
        if (c == 'o') {
            options |= RE_OPTION_ONCE;
        }
        else if (rb_char_to_option_kcode(c, &opt, &kc)) {
            if (kc >= 0) {
                if (kc != rb_ascii8bit_encindex()) kcode = c;
                kopt = opt;
            }
            else {
                options |= opt;
            }
        }
        else {
            tokadd(c);
        }
    }
    options |= kopt;
    pushback(c);
    if (toklen()) {
        tokfix();
        compile_error(PARSER_ARG "unknown regexp option%s - %s",
                      toklen() > 1 ? "s" : "", tok());
    }
    return options | RE_OPTION_ENCODING(kcode);
}

static void
dispose_string(VALUE str)
{
    rb_str_free(str);
    rb_gc_force_recycle(str);
}

static int
parser_tokadd_mbchar(struct parser_params *parser, int c)
{
    int len = parser_precise_mbclen();
    if (!MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_P(len)) {
        compile_error(PARSER_ARG "invalid multibyte char (%s)", parser_encoding_name());
        return -1;
    }
    tokadd(c);
    lex_p += --len;
    if (len > 0) tokcopy(len);
    return c;
}

#define tokadd_mbchar(c) parser_tokadd_mbchar(parser, (c))

static inline int
simple_re_meta(int c)
{
    switch (c) {
      case '$': case '*': case '+': case '.':
      case '?': case '^': case '|':
      case ')': case ']': case '}': case '>':
        return TRUE;
      default:
        return FALSE;
    }
}

static int
parser_update_heredoc_indent(struct parser_params *parser, int c)
{
    if (heredoc_line_indent == -1) {
        if (c == '\n') heredoc_line_indent = 0;
    }
    else {
        if (c == ' ') {
            heredoc_line_indent++;
            return TRUE;
        }
        else if (c == '\t') {
            int w = (heredoc_line_indent / TAB_WIDTH) + 1;
            heredoc_line_indent = w * TAB_WIDTH;
            return TRUE;
        }
        else if (c != '\n') {
            if (heredoc_indent > heredoc_line_indent) {
                heredoc_indent = heredoc_line_indent;
            }
            heredoc_line_indent = -1;
        }
    }
    return FALSE;
}

static int
parser_tokadd_string(struct parser_params *parser,
                     int func, int term, int paren, long *nest,
                     rb_encoding **encp)
{
    int c;
    int has_nonascii = 0;
    rb_encoding *enc = *encp;
    char *errbuf = 0;
    static const char mixed_msg[] = "%s mixed within %s source";

#define mixed_error(enc1, enc2) if (!errbuf) {  \
        size_t len = sizeof(mixed_msg) - 4;     \
        len += strlen(rb_enc_name(enc1));       \
        len += strlen(rb_enc_name(enc2));       \
        errbuf = ALLOCA_N(char, len);           \
        snprintf(errbuf, len, mixed_msg,        \
                 rb_enc_name(enc1),             \
                 rb_enc_name(enc2));            \
        yyerror(errbuf);                        \
    }
#define mixed_escape(beg, enc1, enc2) do {      \
        const char *pos = lex_p;                \
        lex_p = (beg);                          \
        mixed_error((enc1), (enc2));            \
        lex_p = pos;                            \
    } while (0)

    while ((c = nextc()) != -1) {
        if (heredoc_indent > 0) {
            parser_update_heredoc_indent(parser, c);
        }

        if (paren && c == paren) {
            ++*nest;
        }
        else if (c == term) {
            if (!nest || !*nest) {
                pushback(c);
                break;
            }
            --*nest;
        }
        else if ((func & STR_FUNC_EXPAND) && c == '#' && lex_p < lex_pend) {
            int c2 = *lex_p;
            if (c2 == '$' || c2 == '@' || c2 == '{') {
                pushback(c);
                break;
            }
        }
        else if (c == '\\') {
            const char *beg = lex_p - 1;
            c = nextc();
            switch (c) {
              case '\n':
                if (func & STR_FUNC_QWORDS) break;
                if (func & STR_FUNC_EXPAND) continue;
                tokadd('\\');
                break;

              case '\\':
                if (func & STR_FUNC_ESCAPE) tokadd(c);
                break;

              case 'u':
                if ((func & STR_FUNC_EXPAND) == 0) {
                    tokadd('\\');
                    break;
                }
                parser_tokadd_utf8(parser, &enc, 1,
                                   func & STR_FUNC_SYMBOL,
                                   func & STR_FUNC_REGEXP);
                if (has_nonascii && enc != *encp) {
                    mixed_escape(beg, enc, *encp);
                }
                continue;

              default:
                if (c == -1) return -1;
                if (!ISASCII(c)) {
                    if ((func & STR_FUNC_EXPAND) == 0) tokadd('\\');
                    goto non_ascii;
                }
                if (func & STR_FUNC_REGEXP) {
                    if (c == term && !simple_re_meta(c)) {
                        tokadd(c);
                        continue;
                    }
                    pushback(c);
                    if ((c = tokadd_escape(&enc)) < 0)
                        return -1;
                    if (has_nonascii && enc != *encp) {
                        mixed_escape(beg, enc, *encp);
                    }
                    continue;
                }
                else if (func & STR_FUNC_EXPAND) {
                    pushback(c);
                    if (func & STR_FUNC_ESCAPE) tokadd('\\');
                    c = read_escape(0, &enc);
                }
                else if ((func & STR_FUNC_QWORDS) && ISSPACE(c)) {
                    /* ignore backslashed spaces in %w */
                }
                else if (c != term && !(paren && c == paren)) {
                    tokadd('\\');
                    pushback(c);
                    continue;
                }
            }
        }
        else if (!parser_isascii()) {
          non_ascii:
            has_nonascii = 1;
            if (enc != *encp) {
                mixed_error(enc, *encp);
                continue;
            }
            if (tokadd_mbchar(c) == -1) return -1;
            continue;
        }
        else if ((func & STR_FUNC_QWORDS) && ISSPACE(c)) {
            pushback(c);
            break;
        }
        if (c & 0x80) {
            has_nonascii = 1;
            if (enc != *encp) {
                mixed_error(enc, *encp);
                continue;
            }
        }
        tokadd(c);
    }
    *encp = enc;
    return c;
}

#define NEW_STRTERM(func, term, paren) \
        rb_node_newnode(NODE_STRTERM, (func), (term) | ((paren) << (CHAR_BIT * 2)), 0)

#ifdef RIPPER
static void
ripper_flush_string_content(struct parser_params *parser, rb_encoding *enc)
{
    VALUE content = yylval.val;
    if (!ripper_is_node_yylval(content))
        content = ripper_new_yylval(0, 0, content);
    if (has_delayed_token()) {
        ptrdiff_t len = lex_p - parser->tokp;
        if (len > 0) {
            rb_enc_str_buf_cat(parser->delayed, parser->tokp, len, enc);
        }
        dispatch_delayed_token(tSTRING_CONTENT);
        parser->tokp = lex_p;
        RNODE(content)->nd_rval = yylval.val;
    }
    dispatch_scan_event(tSTRING_CONTENT);
    if (yylval.val != content)
        RNODE(content)->nd_rval = yylval.val;
    yylval.val = content;
}

#define flush_string_content(enc) ripper_flush_string_content(parser, (enc))
#else
#define flush_string_content(enc) ((void)(enc))
#endif

RUBY_FUNC_EXPORTED const unsigned int ruby_global_name_punct_bits[(0x7e - 0x20 + 31) / 32];
/* this can be shared with ripper, since it's independent from struct
 * parser_params. */
#ifndef RIPPER
#define BIT(c, idx) (((c) / 32 - 1 == idx) ? (1U << ((c) % 32)) : 0)
#define SPECIAL_PUNCT(idx) ( \
        BIT('~', idx) | BIT('*', idx) | BIT('$', idx) | BIT('?', idx) | \
        BIT('!', idx) | BIT('@', idx) | BIT('/', idx) | BIT('\\', idx) | \
        BIT(';', idx) | BIT(',', idx) | BIT('.', idx) | BIT('=', idx) | \
        BIT(':', idx) | BIT('<', idx) | BIT('>', idx) | BIT('\"', idx) | \
        BIT('&', idx) | BIT('`', idx) | BIT('\'', idx) | BIT('+', idx) | \
        BIT('0', idx))
const unsigned int ruby_global_name_punct_bits[] = {
    SPECIAL_PUNCT(0),
    SPECIAL_PUNCT(1),
    SPECIAL_PUNCT(2),
};
#undef BIT
#undef SPECIAL_PUNCT
#endif

static int
parser_peek_variable_name(struct parser_params *parser)
{
    int c;
    const char *p = lex_p;

    if (p + 1 >= lex_pend) return 0;
    c = *p++;
    switch (c) {
      case '$':
        if ((c = *p) == '-') {
            if (++p >= lex_pend) return 0;
            c = *p;
        }
        else if (is_global_name_punct(c) || ISDIGIT(c)) {
            return tSTRING_DVAR;
        }
        break;
      case '@':
        if ((c = *p) == '@') {
            if (++p >= lex_pend) return 0;
            c = *p;
        }
        break;
      case '{':
        lex_p = p;
        command_start = TRUE;
        return tSTRING_DBEG;
      default:
        return 0;
    }
    if (!ISASCII(c) || c == '_' || ISALPHA(c))
        return tSTRING_DVAR;
    return 0;
}

static int
parser_parse_string(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *quote)
{
    int func = (int)quote->nd_func;
    int term = nd_term(quote);
    int paren = nd_paren(quote);
    int c, space = 0;
    rb_encoding *enc = current_enc;

    if (func == -1) return tSTRING_END;
    c = nextc();
    if ((func & STR_FUNC_QWORDS) && ISSPACE(c)) {
        do {c = nextc();} while (ISSPACE(c));
        space = 1;
    }
    if (c == term && !quote->nd_nest) {
        if (func & STR_FUNC_QWORDS) {
            quote->nd_func = -1;
            return ' ';
        }
        if (!(func & STR_FUNC_REGEXP)) return tSTRING_END;
        set_yylval_num(regx_options());
        dispatch_scan_event(tREGEXP_END);
        return tREGEXP_END;
    }
    if (space) {
        pushback(c);
        return ' ';
    }
    newtok();
    if ((func & STR_FUNC_EXPAND) && c == '#') {
        int t = parser_peek_variable_name(parser);
        if (t) return t;
        tokadd('#');
        c = nextc();
    }
    pushback(c);
    if (tokadd_string(func, term, paren, &quote->nd_nest,
                      &enc) == -1) {
        ruby_sourceline = nd_line(quote);
        if (func & STR_FUNC_REGEXP) {
            if (parser->eofp)
                compile_error(PARSER_ARG "unterminated regexp meets end of file");
            return tREGEXP_END;
        }
        else {
            if (parser->eofp)
                compile_error(PARSER_ARG "unterminated string meets end of file");
            return tSTRING_END;
        }
    }

    tokfix();
    set_yylval_str(STR_NEW3(tok(), toklen(), enc, func));
    flush_string_content(enc);

    return tSTRING_CONTENT;
}

static int
parser_heredoc_identifier(struct parser_params *parser)
{
    int c = nextc(), term, func = 0;
    long len;

    if (c == '-') {
        c = nextc();
        func = STR_FUNC_INDENT;
    }
    else if (c == '~') {
        c = nextc();
        func = STR_FUNC_INDENT;
        heredoc_indent = INT_MAX;
        heredoc_line_indent = 0;
    }
    switch (c) {
      case '\'':
        func |= str_squote; goto quoted;
      case '"':
        func |= str_dquote; goto quoted;
      case '`':
        func |= str_xquote;
      quoted:
        newtok();
        tokadd(func);
        term = c;
        while ((c = nextc()) != -1 && c != term) {
            if (tokadd_mbchar(c) == -1) return 0;
        }
        if (c == -1) {
            compile_error(PARSER_ARG "unterminated here document identifier");
            return 0;
        }
        break;

      default:
        if (!parser_is_identchar()) {
            pushback(c);
            if (func & STR_FUNC_INDENT) {
                pushback(heredoc_indent > 0 ? '~' : '-');
            }
            return 0;
        }
        newtok();
        term = '"';
        tokadd(func |= str_dquote);
        do {
            if (tokadd_mbchar(c) == -1) return 0;
        } while ((c = nextc()) != -1 && parser_is_identchar());
        pushback(c);
        break;
    }

    tokfix();
    dispatch_scan_event(tHEREDOC_BEG);
    len = lex_p - lex_pbeg;
    lex_goto_eol(parser);
    lex_strterm = rb_node_newnode(NODE_HEREDOC,
                                  STR_NEW(tok(), toklen()),     /* nd_lit */
                                  len,                          /* nd_nth */
                                  lex_lastline);                /* nd_orig */
    nd_set_line(lex_strterm, ruby_sourceline);
    ripper_flush(parser);
    return term == '`' ? tXSTRING_BEG : tSTRING_BEG;
}

static void
parser_heredoc_restore(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *here)
{
    VALUE line;

    lex_strterm = 0;
    line = here->nd_orig;
    lex_lastline = line;
    lex_pbeg = RSTRING_PTR(line);
    lex_pend = lex_pbeg + RSTRING_LEN(line);
    lex_p = lex_pbeg + here->nd_nth;
    heredoc_end = ruby_sourceline;
    ruby_sourceline = nd_line(here);
    dispose_string(here->nd_lit);
    rb_gc_force_recycle((VALUE)here);
    ripper_flush(parser);
}

static int
dedent_string(VALUE string, int width)
{
    char *str;
    long len;
    int i, col = 0;

    RSTRING_GETMEM(string, str, len);
    for (i = 0; i < len && col < width; i++) {
        if (str[i] == ' ') {
            col++;
        }
        else if (str[i] == '\t') {
            int n = TAB_WIDTH * (col / TAB_WIDTH + 1);
            if (n > width) break;
            col = n;
        }
        else {
            break;
        }
    }
    MEMMOVE(str, str + i, char, len - i);
    rb_str_set_len(string, len - i);
    return i;
}

#ifndef RIPPER
static void
parser_heredoc_dedent(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *root)
{
    NODE *node, *str_node;
    int bol = TRUE;
    int indent = heredoc_indent;

    if (indent <= 0) return;

    node = str_node = root;

    if (!root) return;
    if (nd_type(root) == NODE_ARRAY) str_node = root->nd_head;

    while (str_node) {
        VALUE lit = str_node->nd_lit;
        if (bol) dedent_string(lit, indent);
        bol = TRUE;

        str_node = 0;
        while ((node = node->nd_next) != 0 && nd_type(node) == NODE_ARRAY) {
            if ((str_node = node->nd_head) != 0) {
                enum node_type type = nd_type(str_node);
                if (type == NODE_STR || type == NODE_DSTR) break;
                bol = FALSE;
                str_node = 0;
            }
        }
    }
}
#else /* RIPPER */
static void
parser_heredoc_dedent(struct parser_params *parser, VALUE array)
{
    if (heredoc_indent <= 0) return;

    dispatch2(heredoc_dedent, array, INT2NUM(heredoc_indent));
}

static VALUE
parser_dedent_string(VALUE self, VALUE input, VALUE width)
{
    int wid, col;

    StringValue(input);
    wid = NUM2UINT(width);
    rb_str_modify(input);
    col = dedent_string(input, wid);
    return INT2NUM(col);
}
#endif

static int
parser_whole_match_p(struct parser_params *parser,
    const char *eos, long len, int indent)
{
    const char *p = lex_pbeg;
    long n;

    if (indent) {
        while (*p && ISSPACE(*p)) p++;
    }
    n = lex_pend - (p + len);
    if (n < 0) return FALSE;
    if (n > 0 && p[len] != '\n') {
        if (p[len] != '\r') return FALSE;
        if (n <= 1 || p[len+1] != '\n') return FALSE;
    }
    return strncmp(eos, p, len) == 0;
}

#define NUM_SUFFIX_R   (1<<0)
#define NUM_SUFFIX_I   (1<<1)
#define NUM_SUFFIX_ALL 3

static int
parser_number_literal_suffix(struct parser_params *parser, int mask)
{
    int c, result = 0;
    const char *lastp = lex_p;

    while ((c = nextc()) != -1) {
        if ((mask & NUM_SUFFIX_I) && c == 'i') {
            result |= (mask & NUM_SUFFIX_I);
            mask &= ~NUM_SUFFIX_I;
            /* r after i, rational of complex is disallowed */
            mask &= ~NUM_SUFFIX_R;
            continue;
        }
        if ((mask & NUM_SUFFIX_R) && c == 'r') {
            result |= (mask & NUM_SUFFIX_R);
            mask &= ~NUM_SUFFIX_R;
            continue;
        }
        if (!ISASCII(c) || ISALPHA(c) || c == '_') {
            lex_p = lastp;
            return 0;
        }
        pushback(c);
        if (c == '.') {
            c = peekc_n(1);
            if (ISDIGIT(c)) {
                yyerror("unexpected fraction part after numeric literal");
                lex_p += 2;
                while (parser_is_identchar()) nextc();
            }
        }
        break;
    }
    return result;
}

static int
parser_set_number_literal(struct parser_params *parser, VALUE v, int type, int suffix)
{
    if (suffix & NUM_SUFFIX_I) {
        v = rb_complex_raw(INT2FIX(0), v);
        type = tIMAGINARY;
    }
    set_yylval_literal(v);
    return type;
}

static int
parser_set_integer_literal(struct parser_params *parser, VALUE v, int suffix)
{
    int type = tINTEGER;
    if (suffix & NUM_SUFFIX_R) {
        v = rb_rational_raw1(v);
        type = tRATIONAL;
    }
    return set_number_literal(v, type, suffix);
}

#ifdef RIPPER
static void
ripper_dispatch_heredoc_end(struct parser_params *parser)
{
    VALUE str;
    if (has_delayed_token())
        dispatch_delayed_token(tSTRING_CONTENT);
    str = STR_NEW(parser->tokp, lex_pend - parser->tokp);
    ripper_dispatch1(parser, ripper_token2eventid(tHEREDOC_END), str);
    lex_goto_eol(parser);
    ripper_flush(parser);
}

#define dispatch_heredoc_end() ripper_dispatch_heredoc_end(parser)
#else
#define dispatch_heredoc_end() ((void)0)
#endif

static int
parser_here_document(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *here)
{
    int c, func, indent = 0;
    const char *eos, *p, *pend;
    long len;
    VALUE str = 0;
    rb_encoding *enc = current_enc;

    eos = RSTRING_PTR(here->nd_lit);
    len = RSTRING_LEN(here->nd_lit) - 1;
    indent = (func = *eos++) & STR_FUNC_INDENT;

    if ((c = nextc()) == -1) {
      error:
        compile_error(PARSER_ARG "can't find string \"%s\" anywhere before EOF", eos);
#ifdef RIPPER
        if (!has_delayed_token()) {
            dispatch_scan_event(tSTRING_CONTENT);
        }
        else {
            if (str) {
                rb_str_append(parser->delayed, str);
            }
            else if ((len = lex_p - parser->tokp) > 0) {
                if (!(func & STR_FUNC_REGEXP) && rb_enc_asciicompat(enc)) {
                    int cr = ENC_CODERANGE_UNKNOWN;
                    rb_str_coderange_scan_restartable(parser->tokp, lex_p, enc, &cr);
                    if (cr != ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT &&
                        current_enc == rb_usascii_encoding() &&
                        enc != rb_utf8_encoding()) {
                        enc = rb_ascii8bit_encoding();
                    }
                }
                rb_enc_str_buf_cat(parser->delayed, parser->tokp, len, enc);
            }
            dispatch_delayed_token(tSTRING_CONTENT);
        }
        lex_goto_eol(parser);
#endif
      restore:
        heredoc_restore(lex_strterm);
        return 0;
    }
    if (was_bol() && whole_match_p(eos, len, indent)) {
        dispatch_heredoc_end();
        heredoc_restore(lex_strterm);
        return tSTRING_END;
    }

    if (!(func & STR_FUNC_EXPAND)) {
        do {
            p = RSTRING_PTR(lex_lastline);
            pend = lex_pend;
            if (pend > p) {
                switch (pend[-1]) {
                  case '\n':
                    if (--pend == p || pend[-1] != '\r') {
                        pend++;
                        break;
                    }
                  case '\r':
                    --pend;
                }
            }

            if (heredoc_indent > 0) {
                long i = 0;
                while (p + i < pend && parser_update_heredoc_indent(parser, p[i]))
                    i++;
                heredoc_line_indent = 0;
            }

            if (str)
                rb_str_cat(str, p, pend - p);
            else
                str = STR_NEW(p, pend - p);
            if (pend < lex_pend) rb_str_cat(str, "\n", 1);
            lex_goto_eol(parser);
            if (heredoc_indent > 0) {
                set_yylval_str(str);
                flush_string_content(enc);
                return tSTRING_CONTENT;
            }
            if (nextc() == -1) {
                if (str) {
                    dispose_string(str);
                    str = 0;
                }
                goto error;
            }
        } while (!whole_match_p(eos, len, indent));
    }
    else {
        /*      int mb = ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT, *mbp = &mb;*/
        newtok();
        if (c == '#') {
            int t = parser_peek_variable_name(parser);
            if (t) return t;
            tokadd('#');
            c = nextc();
        }
        do {
            pushback(c);
            if ((c = tokadd_string(func, '\n', 0, NULL, &enc)) == -1) {
                if (parser->eofp) goto error;
                goto restore;
            }
            if (c != '\n') {
              flush:
                set_yylval_str(STR_NEW3(tok(), toklen(), enc, func));
                flush_string_content(enc);
                return tSTRING_CONTENT;
            }
            tokadd(nextc());
            if (heredoc_indent > 0) {
                lex_goto_eol(parser);
                goto flush;
            }
            /*      if (mbp && mb == ENC_CODERANGE_UNKNOWN) mbp = 0;*/
            if ((c = nextc()) == -1) goto error;
        } while (!whole_match_p(eos, len, indent));
        str = STR_NEW3(tok(), toklen(), enc, func);
    }
    dispatch_heredoc_end();
#ifdef RIPPER
    str = ripper_new_yylval(ripper_token2eventid(tSTRING_CONTENT),
                            yylval.val, str);
#endif
    heredoc_restore(lex_strterm);
    lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(-1, 0, 0);
    set_yylval_str(str);
    return tSTRING_CONTENT;
}

#include "lex.c"

static void
arg_ambiguous_gen(struct parser_params *parser, char c)
{
#ifndef RIPPER
    rb_warning1("ambiguous first argument; put parentheses or a space even after `%c' operator", WARN_I(c));
#else
    dispatch1(arg_ambiguous, rb_usascii_str_new(&c, 1));
#endif
}
#define arg_ambiguous(c) (arg_ambiguous_gen(parser, (c)), 1)

static ID
formal_argument_gen(struct parser_params *parser, ID lhs)
{
    switch (id_type(lhs)) {
      case ID_LOCAL:
        break;
#ifndef RIPPER
      case ID_CONST:
        yyerror("formal argument cannot be a constant");
        return 0;
      case ID_INSTANCE:
        yyerror("formal argument cannot be an instance variable");
        return 0;
      case ID_GLOBAL:
        yyerror("formal argument cannot be a global variable");
        return 0;
      case ID_CLASS:
        yyerror("formal argument cannot be a class variable");
        return 0;
      default:
        yyerror("formal argument must be local variable");
        return 0;
#else
      default:
        lhs = dispatch1(param_error, lhs);
        ripper_error();
        return 0;
#endif
    }
    shadowing_lvar(lhs);
    return lhs;
}

static int
lvar_defined_gen(struct parser_params *parser, ID id)
{
    return (dyna_in_block() && dvar_defined_get(id)) || local_id(id);
}

/* emacsen -*- hack */
static long
parser_encode_length(struct parser_params *parser, const char *name, long len)
{
    long nlen;

    if (len > 5 && name[nlen = len - 5] == '-') {
        if (rb_memcicmp(name + nlen + 1, "unix", 4) == 0)
            return nlen;
    }
    if (len > 4 && name[nlen = len - 4] == '-') {
        if (rb_memcicmp(name + nlen + 1, "dos", 3) == 0)
            return nlen;
        if (rb_memcicmp(name + nlen + 1, "mac", 3) == 0 &&
            !(len == 8 && rb_memcicmp(name, "utf8-mac", len) == 0))
            /* exclude UTF8-MAC because the encoding named "UTF8" doesn't exist in Ruby */
            return nlen;
    }
    return len;
}

static void
parser_set_encode(struct parser_params *parser, const char *name)
{
    int idx = rb_enc_find_index(name);
    rb_encoding *enc;
    VALUE excargs[3];

    if (idx < 0) {
        excargs[1] = rb_sprintf("unknown encoding name: %s", name);
      error:
        excargs[0] = rb_eArgError;
        excargs[2] = rb_make_backtrace();
        rb_ary_unshift(excargs[2], rb_sprintf("%"PRIsVALUE":%d", ruby_sourcefile_string, ruby_sourceline));
        rb_exc_raise(rb_make_exception(3, excargs));
    }
    enc = rb_enc_from_index(idx);
    if (!rb_enc_asciicompat(enc)) {
        excargs[1] = rb_sprintf("%s is not ASCII compatible", rb_enc_name(enc));
        goto error;
    }
    parser->enc = enc;
#ifndef RIPPER
    if (ruby_debug_lines) {
        VALUE lines = ruby_debug_lines;
        long i, n = RARRAY_LEN(lines);
        for (i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
            rb_enc_associate_index(RARRAY_AREF(lines, i), idx);
        }
    }
#endif
}

static int
comment_at_top(struct parser_params *parser)
{
    const char *p = lex_pbeg, *pend = lex_p - 1;
    if (parser->line_count != (parser->has_shebang ? 2 : 1)) return 0;
    while (p < pend) {
        if (!ISSPACE(*p)) return 0;
        p++;
    }
    return 1;
}

typedef long (*rb_magic_comment_length_t)(struct parser_params *parser, const char *name, long len);
typedef void (*rb_magic_comment_setter_t)(struct parser_params *parser, const char *name, const char *val);

static void
magic_comment_encoding(struct parser_params *parser, const char *name, const char *val)
{
    if (!comment_at_top(parser)) {
        return;
    }
    parser_set_encode(parser, val);
}

static int
parser_get_bool(struct parser_params *parser, const char *name, const char *val)
{
    switch (*val) {
      case 't': case 'T':
        if (strcasecmp(val, "true") == 0) {
            return TRUE;
        }
        break;
      case 'f': case 'F':
        if (strcasecmp(val, "false") == 0) {
            return FALSE;
        }
        break;
    }
    rb_compile_warning(ruby_sourcefile, ruby_sourceline, "invalid value for %s: %s", name, val);
    return -1;
}

static void
parser_set_token_info(struct parser_params *parser, const char *name, const char *val)
{
    int b = parser_get_bool(parser, name, val);
    if (b >= 0) parser->token_info_enabled = b;
}

static void
parser_set_compile_option_flag(struct parser_params *parser, const char *name, const char *val)
{
    int b;

    if (parser->token_seen) {
        rb_warning1("`%s' is ignored after any tokens", WARN_S(name));
        return;
    }

    b = parser_get_bool(parser, name, val);
    if (b < 0) return;

    if (!parser->compile_option)
        parser->compile_option = rb_obj_hide(rb_ident_hash_new());
    rb_hash_aset(parser->compile_option, ID2SYM(rb_intern(name)),
                 (b ? Qtrue : Qfalse));
}

# if WARN_PAST_SCOPE
static void
parser_set_past_scope(struct parser_params *parser, const char *name, const char *val)
{
    int b = parser_get_bool(parser, name, val);
    if (b >= 0) parser->past_scope_enabled = b;
}
# endif

struct magic_comment {
    const char *name;
    rb_magic_comment_setter_t func;
    rb_magic_comment_length_t length;
};

static const struct magic_comment magic_comments[] = {
    {"coding", magic_comment_encoding, parser_encode_length},
    {"encoding", magic_comment_encoding, parser_encode_length},
    {"frozen_string_literal", parser_set_compile_option_flag},
    {"warn_indent", parser_set_token_info},
# if WARN_PAST_SCOPE
    {"warn_past_scope", parser_set_past_scope},
# endif
};

static const char *
magic_comment_marker(const char *str, long len)
{
    long i = 2;

    while (i < len) {
        switch (str[i]) {
          case '-':
            if (str[i-1] == '*' && str[i-2] == '-') {
                return str + i + 1;
            }
            i += 2;
            break;
          case '*':
            if (i + 1 >= len) return 0;
            if (str[i+1] != '-') {
                i += 4;
            }
            else if (str[i-1] != '-') {
                i += 2;
            }
            else {
                return str + i + 2;
            }
            break;
          default:
            i += 3;
            break;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}

static int
parser_magic_comment(struct parser_params *parser, const char *str, long len)
{
    int indicator = 0;
    VALUE name = 0, val = 0;
    const char *beg, *end, *vbeg, *vend;
#define str_copy(_s, _p, _n) ((_s) \
        ? (void)(rb_str_resize((_s), (_n)), \
           MEMCPY(RSTRING_PTR(_s), (_p), char, (_n)), (_s)) \
        : (void)((_s) = STR_NEW((_p), (_n))))

    if (len <= 7) return FALSE;
    if (!!(beg = magic_comment_marker(str, len))) {
        if (!(end = magic_comment_marker(beg, str + len - beg)))
            return FALSE;
        indicator = TRUE;
        str = beg;
        len = end - beg - 3;
    }

    /* %r"([^\\s\'\":;]+)\\s*:\\s*(\"(?:\\\\.|[^\"])*\"|[^\"\\s;]+)[\\s;]*" */
    while (len > 0) {
        const struct magic_comment *p = magic_comments;
        char *s;
        int i;
        long n = 0;

        for (; len > 0 && *str; str++, --len) {
            switch (*str) {
              case '\'': case '"': case ':': case ';':
                continue;
            }
            if (!ISSPACE(*str)) break;
        }
        for (beg = str; len > 0; str++, --len) {
            switch (*str) {
              case '\'': case '"': case ':': case ';':
                break;
              default:
                if (ISSPACE(*str)) break;
                continue;
            }
            break;
        }
        for (end = str; len > 0 && ISSPACE(*str); str++, --len);
        if (!len) break;
        if (*str != ':') {
            if (!indicator) return FALSE;
            continue;
        }

        do str++; while (--len > 0 && ISSPACE(*str));
        if (!len) break;
        if (*str == '"') {
            for (vbeg = ++str; --len > 0 && *str != '"'; str++) {
                if (*str == '\\') {
                    --len;
                    ++str;
                }
            }
            vend = str;
            if (len) {
                --len;
                ++str;
            }
        }
        else {
            for (vbeg = str; len > 0 && *str != '"' && *str != ';' && !ISSPACE(*str); --len, str++);
            vend = str;
        }
        if (indicator) {
            while (len > 0 && (*str == ';' || ISSPACE(*str))) --len, str++;
        }
        else {
            while (len > 0 && (ISSPACE(*str))) --len, str++;
            if (len) return FALSE;
        }

        n = end - beg;
        str_copy(name, beg, n);
        s = RSTRING_PTR(name);
        for (i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
            if (s[i] == '-') s[i] = '_';
        }
        do {
            if (STRNCASECMP(p->name, s, n) == 0 && !p->name[n]) {
                n = vend - vbeg;
                if (p->length) {
                    n = (*p->length)(parser, vbeg, n);
                }
                str_copy(val, vbeg, n);
                (*p->func)(parser, p->name, RSTRING_PTR(val));
                break;
            }
        } while (++p < magic_comments + numberof(magic_comments));
#ifdef RIPPER
        str_copy(val, vbeg, vend - vbeg);
        dispatch2(magic_comment, name, val);
#endif
    }

    return TRUE;
}

static void
set_file_encoding(struct parser_params *parser, const char *str, const char *send)
{
    int sep = 0;
    const char *beg = str;
    VALUE s;

    for (;;) {
        if (send - str <= 6) return;
        switch (str[6]) {
          case 'C': case 'c': str += 6; continue;
          case 'O': case 'o': str += 5; continue;
          case 'D': case 'd': str += 4; continue;
          case 'I': case 'i': str += 3; continue;
          case 'N': case 'n': str += 2; continue;
          case 'G': case 'g': str += 1; continue;
          case '=': case ':':
            sep = 1;
            str += 6;
            break;
          default:
            str += 6;
            if (ISSPACE(*str)) break;
            continue;
        }
        if (STRNCASECMP(str-6, "coding", 6) == 0) break;
    }
    for (;;) {
        do {
            if (++str >= send) return;
        } while (ISSPACE(*str));
        if (sep) break;
        if (*str != '=' && *str != ':') return;
        sep = 1;
        str++;
    }
    beg = str;
    while ((*str == '-' || *str == '_' || ISALNUM(*str)) && ++str < send);
    s = rb_str_new(beg, parser_encode_length(parser, beg, str - beg));
    parser_set_encode(parser, RSTRING_PTR(s));
    rb_str_resize(s, 0);
}

static void
parser_prepare(struct parser_params *parser)
{
    int c = nextc();
    switch (c) {
      case '#':
        if (peek('!')) parser->has_shebang = 1;
        break;
      case 0xef:                /* UTF-8 BOM marker */
        if (lex_pend - lex_p >= 2 &&
            (unsigned char)lex_p[0] == 0xbb &&
            (unsigned char)lex_p[1] == 0xbf) {
            parser->enc = rb_utf8_encoding();
            lex_p += 2;
            lex_pbeg = lex_p;
            return;
        }
        break;
      case EOF:
        return;
    }
    pushback(c);
    parser->enc = rb_enc_get(lex_lastline);
    deferred_nodes = 0;
    parser->token_info_enabled = !compile_for_eval && RTEST(ruby_verbose);
}

#define IS_ARG() IS_lex_state(EXPR_ARG_ANY)
#define IS_END() IS_lex_state(EXPR_END_ANY)
#define IS_BEG() (IS_lex_state(EXPR_BEG_ANY) || IS_lex_state_all(EXPR_ARG|EXPR_LABELED))
#define IS_SPCARG(c) (IS_ARG() && space_seen && !ISSPACE(c))
#define IS_LABEL_POSSIBLE() (\
        (IS_lex_state(EXPR_LABEL|EXPR_ENDFN) && !cmd_state) || \
        IS_ARG())
#define IS_LABEL_SUFFIX(n) (peek_n(':',(n)) && !peek_n(':', (n)+1))
#define IS_AFTER_OPERATOR() IS_lex_state(EXPR_FNAME | EXPR_DOT)

#ifndef RIPPER
#define ambiguous_operator(op, syn) ( \
    rb_warning0("`"op"' after local variable or literal is interpreted as binary operator"), \
    rb_warning0("even though it seems like "syn""))
#else
#define ambiguous_operator(op, syn) dispatch2(operator_ambiguous, ripper_intern(op), rb_str_new_cstr(syn))
#endif
#define warn_balanced(op, syn) ((void) \
    (!IS_lex_state_for(last_state, EXPR_CLASS|EXPR_DOT|EXPR_FNAME|EXPR_ENDFN|EXPR_ENDARG) && \
     space_seen && !ISSPACE(c) && \
     (ambiguous_operator(op, syn), 0)))

static VALUE
parse_rational(struct parser_params *parser, char *str, int len, int seen_point)
{
    VALUE v;
    char *point = &str[seen_point];
    size_t fraclen = len-seen_point-1;
    memmove(point, point+1, fraclen+1);
    v = rb_cstr_to_inum(str, 10, FALSE);
    return rb_rational_new(v, rb_int_positive_pow(10, fraclen));
}

static int
parse_numeric(struct parser_params *parser, int c)
{
    int is_float, seen_point, seen_e, nondigit;
    int suffix;

    is_float = seen_point = seen_e = nondigit = 0;
    SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_END);
    newtok();
    if (c == '-' || c == '+') {
        tokadd(c);
        c = nextc();
    }
    if (c == '0') {
#define no_digits() do {yyerror("numeric literal without digits"); return 0;} while (0)
        int start = toklen();
        c = nextc();
        if (c == 'x' || c == 'X') {
            /* hexadecimal */
            c = nextc();
            if (c != -1 && ISXDIGIT(c)) {
                do {
                    if (c == '_') {
                        if (nondigit) break;
                        nondigit = c;
                        continue;
                    }
                    if (!ISXDIGIT(c)) break;
                    nondigit = 0;
                    tokadd(c);
                } while ((c = nextc()) != -1);
            }
            pushback(c);
            tokfix();
            if (toklen() == start) {
                no_digits();
            }
            else if (nondigit) goto trailing_uc;
            suffix = number_literal_suffix(NUM_SUFFIX_ALL);
            return set_integer_literal(rb_cstr_to_inum(tok(), 16, FALSE), suffix);
        }
        if (c == 'b' || c == 'B') {
            /* binary */
            c = nextc();
            if (c == '0' || c == '1') {
                do {
                    if (c == '_') {
                        if (nondigit) break;
                        nondigit = c;
                        continue;
                    }
                    if (c != '0' && c != '1') break;
                    nondigit = 0;
                    tokadd(c);
                } while ((c = nextc()) != -1);
            }
            pushback(c);
            tokfix();
            if (toklen() == start) {
                no_digits();
            }
            else if (nondigit) goto trailing_uc;
            suffix = number_literal_suffix(NUM_SUFFIX_ALL);
            return set_integer_literal(rb_cstr_to_inum(tok(), 2, FALSE), suffix);
        }
        if (c == 'd' || c == 'D') {
            /* decimal */
            c = nextc();
            if (c != -1 && ISDIGIT(c)) {
                do {
                    if (c == '_') {
                        if (nondigit) break;
                        nondigit = c;
                        continue;
                    }
                    if (!ISDIGIT(c)) break;
                    nondigit = 0;
                    tokadd(c);
                } while ((c = nextc()) != -1);
            }
            pushback(c);
            tokfix();
            if (toklen() == start) {
                no_digits();
            }
            else if (nondigit) goto trailing_uc;
            suffix = number_literal_suffix(NUM_SUFFIX_ALL);
            return set_integer_literal(rb_cstr_to_inum(tok(), 10, FALSE), suffix);
        }
        if (c == '_') {
            /* 0_0 */
            goto octal_number;
        }
        if (c == 'o' || c == 'O') {
            /* prefixed octal */
            c = nextc();
            if (c == -1 || c == '_' || !ISDIGIT(c)) {
                no_digits();
            }
        }
        if (c >= '0' && c <= '7') {
            /* octal */
          octal_number:
            do {
                if (c == '_') {
                    if (nondigit) break;
                    nondigit = c;
                    continue;
                }
                if (c < '0' || c > '9') break;
                if (c > '7') goto invalid_octal;
                nondigit = 0;
                tokadd(c);
            } while ((c = nextc()) != -1);
            if (toklen() > start) {
                pushback(c);
                tokfix();
                if (nondigit) goto trailing_uc;
                suffix = number_literal_suffix(NUM_SUFFIX_ALL);
                return set_integer_literal(rb_cstr_to_inum(tok(), 8, FALSE), suffix);
            }
            if (nondigit) {
                pushback(c);
                goto trailing_uc;
            }
        }
        if (c > '7' && c <= '9') {
          invalid_octal:
            yyerror("Invalid octal digit");
        }
        else if (c == '.' || c == 'e' || c == 'E') {
            tokadd('0');
        }
        else {
            pushback(c);
            suffix = number_literal_suffix(NUM_SUFFIX_ALL);
            return set_integer_literal(INT2FIX(0), suffix);
        }
    }

    for (;;) {
        switch (c) {
          case '0': case '1': case '2': case '3': case '4':
          case '5': case '6': case '7': case '8': case '9':
            nondigit = 0;
            tokadd(c);
            break;

          case '.':
            if (nondigit) goto trailing_uc;
            if (seen_point || seen_e) {
                goto decode_num;
            }
            else {
                int c0 = nextc();
                if (c0 == -1 || !ISDIGIT(c0)) {
                    pushback(c0);
                    goto decode_num;
                }
                c = c0;
            }
            seen_point = toklen();
            tokadd('.');
            tokadd(c);
            is_float++;
            nondigit = 0;
            break;

          case 'e':
          case 'E':
            if (nondigit) {
                pushback(c);
                c = nondigit;
                goto decode_num;
            }
            if (seen_e) {
                goto decode_num;
            }
            nondigit = c;
            c = nextc();
            if (c != '-' && c != '+' && !ISDIGIT(c)) {
                pushback(c);
                nondigit = 0;
                goto decode_num;
            }
            tokadd(nondigit);
            seen_e++;
            is_float++;
            tokadd(c);
            nondigit = (c == '-' || c == '+') ? c : 0;
            break;

          case '_':     /* `_' in number just ignored */
            if (nondigit) goto decode_num;
            nondigit = c;
            break;

          default:
            goto decode_num;
        }
        c = nextc();
    }

  decode_num:
    pushback(c);
    if (nondigit) {
        char tmp[30];
      trailing_uc:
        snprintf(tmp, sizeof(tmp), "trailing `%c' in number", nondigit);
        yyerror(tmp);
    }
    tokfix();
    if (is_float) {
        int type = tFLOAT;
        VALUE v;

        suffix = number_literal_suffix(seen_e ? NUM_SUFFIX_I : NUM_SUFFIX_ALL);
        if (suffix & NUM_SUFFIX_R) {
            type = tRATIONAL;
            v = parse_rational(parser, tok(), toklen(), seen_point);
        }
        else {
            double d = strtod(tok(), 0);
            if (errno == ERANGE) {
                rb_warning1("Float %s out of range", WARN_S(tok()));
                errno = 0;
            }
            v = DBL2NUM(d);
        }
        return set_number_literal(v, type, suffix);
    }
    suffix = number_literal_suffix(NUM_SUFFIX_ALL);
    return set_integer_literal(rb_cstr_to_inum(tok(), 10, FALSE), suffix);
}

static int
parse_qmark(struct parser_params *parser)
{
    rb_encoding *enc;
    register int c;

    if (IS_END()) {
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_VALUE);
        return '?';
    }
    c = nextc();
    if (c == -1) {
        compile_error(PARSER_ARG "incomplete character syntax");
        return 0;
    }
    if (rb_enc_isspace(c, current_enc)) {
        if (!IS_ARG()) {
            int c2 = 0;
            switch (c) {
              case ' ':
                c2 = 's';
                break;
              case '\n':
                c2 = 'n';
                break;
              case '\t':
                c2 = 't';
                break;
              case '\v':
                c2 = 'v';
                break;
              case '\r':
                c2 = 'r';
                break;
              case '\f':
                c2 = 'f';
                break;
            }
            if (c2) {
                rb_warn1("invalid character syntax; use ?\\%c", WARN_I(c2));
            }
        }
      ternary:
        pushback(c);
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_VALUE);
        return '?';
    }
    newtok();
    enc = current_enc;
    if (!parser_isascii()) {
        if (tokadd_mbchar(c) == -1) return 0;
    }
    else if ((rb_enc_isalnum(c, current_enc) || c == '_') &&
             lex_p < lex_pend && is_identchar(lex_p, lex_pend, current_enc)) {
        goto ternary;
    }
    else if (c == '\\') {
        if (peek('u')) {
            nextc();
            c = parser_tokadd_utf8(parser, &enc, 0, 0, 0);
            if (0x80 <= c) {
                tokaddmbc(c, enc);
            }
            else {
                tokadd(c);
            }
        }
        else if (!lex_eol_p() && !(c = *lex_p, ISASCII(c))) {
            nextc();
            if (tokadd_mbchar(c) == -1) return 0;
        }
        else {
            c = read_escape(0, &enc);
            tokadd(c);
        }
    }
    else {
        tokadd(c);
    }
    tokfix();
    set_yylval_str(STR_NEW3(tok(), toklen(), enc, 0));
    SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_END);
    return tCHAR;
}

static int
parse_percent(struct parser_params *parser, const int space_seen, const enum lex_state_e last_state)
{
    register int c;

    if (IS_BEG()) {
        int term;
        int paren;

        c = nextc();
      quotation:
        if (c == -1 || !ISALNUM(c)) {
            term = c;
            c = 'Q';
        }
        else {
            term = nextc();
            if (rb_enc_isalnum(term, current_enc) || !parser_isascii()) {
                yyerror("unknown type of %string");
                return 0;
            }
        }
        if (c == -1 || term == -1) {
            compile_error(PARSER_ARG "unterminated quoted string meets end of file");
            return 0;
        }
        paren = term;
        if (term == '(') term = ')';
        else if (term == '[') term = ']';
        else if (term == '{') term = '}';
        else if (term == '<') term = '>';
        else paren = 0;

        switch (c) {
          case 'Q':
            lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_dquote, term, paren);
            return tSTRING_BEG;

          case 'q':
            lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_squote, term, paren);
            return tSTRING_BEG;

          case 'W':
            lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_dword, term, paren);
            do {c = nextc();} while (ISSPACE(c));
            pushback(c);
            return tWORDS_BEG;

          case 'w':
            lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_sword, term, paren);
            do {c = nextc();} while (ISSPACE(c));
            pushback(c);
            return tQWORDS_BEG;

          case 'I':
            lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_dword, term, paren);
            do {c = nextc();} while (ISSPACE(c));
            pushback(c);
            return tSYMBOLS_BEG;

          case 'i':
            lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_sword, term, paren);
            do {c = nextc();} while (ISSPACE(c));
            pushback(c);
            return tQSYMBOLS_BEG;

          case 'x':
            lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_xquote, term, paren);
            return tXSTRING_BEG;

          case 'r':
            lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_regexp, term, paren);
            return tREGEXP_BEG;

          case 's':
            lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_ssym, term, paren);
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_FNAME|EXPR_FITEM);
            return tSYMBEG;

          default:
            yyerror("unknown type of %string");
            return 0;
        }
    }
    if ((c = nextc()) == '=') {
        set_yylval_id('%');
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
        return tOP_ASGN;
    }
    if (IS_SPCARG(c) || (IS_lex_state(EXPR_FITEM) && c == 's')) {
        goto quotation;
    }
    SET_LEX_STATE(IS_AFTER_OPERATOR() ? EXPR_ARG : EXPR_BEG);
    pushback(c);
    warn_balanced("%%", "string literal");
    return '%';
}

static int
tokadd_ident(struct parser_params *parser, int c)
{
    do {
        if (tokadd_mbchar(c) == -1) return -1;
        c = nextc();
    } while (parser_is_identchar());
    pushback(c);
    return 0;
}

static ID
tokenize_ident(struct parser_params *parser, const enum lex_state_e last_state)
{
    ID ident = TOK_INTERN();

    set_yylval_name(ident);

    return ident;
}

static int
parse_numvar(struct parser_params *parser)
{
    size_t len;
    int overflow;
    unsigned long n = ruby_scan_digits(tok()+1, toklen()-1, 10, &len, &overflow);
    const unsigned long nth_ref_max =
        ((FIXNUM_MAX < INT_MAX) ? FIXNUM_MAX : INT_MAX) >> 1;
    /* NTH_REF is left-shifted to be ORed with back-ref flag and
     * turned into a Fixnum, in compile.c */

    if (overflow || n > nth_ref_max) {
        /* compile_error()? */
        rb_warn1("`%s' is too big for a number variable, always nil", WARN_S(tok()));
        return 0;               /* $0 is $PROGRAM_NAME, not NTH_REF */
    }
    else {
        return (int)n;
    }
}

static int
parse_gvar(struct parser_params *parser, const enum lex_state_e last_state)
{
    register int c;

    SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_END);
    newtok();
    c = nextc();
    switch (c) {
      case '_':         /* $_: last read line string */
        c = nextc();
        if (parser_is_identchar()) {
            tokadd('$');
            tokadd('_');
            break;
        }
        pushback(c);
        c = '_';
        /* fall through */
      case '~':         /* $~: match-data */
      case '*':         /* $*: argv */
      case '$':         /* $$: pid */
      case '?':         /* $?: last status */
      case '!':         /* $!: error string */
      case '@':         /* $@: error position */
      case '/':         /* $/: input record separator */
      case '\\':                /* $\: output record separator */
      case ';':         /* $;: field separator */
      case ',':         /* $,: output field separator */
      case '.':         /* $.: last read line number */
      case '=':         /* $=: ignorecase */
      case ':':         /* $:: load path */
      case '<':         /* $<: reading filename */
      case '>':         /* $>: default output handle */
      case '\"':                /* $": already loaded files */
        tokadd('$');
        tokadd(c);
        goto gvar;

      case '-':
        tokadd('$');
        tokadd(c);
        c = nextc();
        if (parser_is_identchar()) {
            if (tokadd_mbchar(c) == -1) return 0;
        }
        else {
            pushback(c);
            pushback('-');
            return '$';
        }
      gvar:
        set_yylval_name(TOK_INTERN());
        return tGVAR;

      case '&':         /* $&: last match */
      case '`':         /* $`: string before last match */
      case '\'':                /* $': string after last match */
      case '+':         /* $+: string matches last paren. */
        if (IS_lex_state_for(last_state, EXPR_FNAME)) {
            tokadd('$');
            tokadd(c);
            goto gvar;
        }
        set_yylval_node(NEW_BACK_REF(c));
        return tBACK_REF;

      case '1': case '2': case '3':
      case '4': case '5': case '6':
      case '7': case '8': case '9':
        tokadd('$');
        do {
            tokadd(c);
            c = nextc();
        } while (c != -1 && ISDIGIT(c));
        pushback(c);
        if (IS_lex_state_for(last_state, EXPR_FNAME)) goto gvar;
        tokfix();
        set_yylval_node(NEW_NTH_REF(parse_numvar(parser)));
        return tNTH_REF;

      default:
        if (!parser_is_identchar()) {
            if (c == -1 || ISSPACE(c)) {
                compile_error(PARSER_ARG "`$' without identifiers is not allowed as a global variable name");
            }
            else {
                pushback(c);
                compile_error(PARSER_ARG "`$%c' is not allowed as a global variable name", c);
            }
            return 0;
        }
      case '0':
        tokadd('$');
    }

    if (tokadd_ident(parser, c)) return 0;
    SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_END);
    tokenize_ident(parser, last_state);
    return tGVAR;
}

static int
parse_atmark(struct parser_params *parser, const enum lex_state_e last_state)
{
    int result = tIVAR;
    register int c = nextc();

    newtok();
    tokadd('@');
    if (c == '@') {
        result = tCVAR;
        tokadd('@');
        c = nextc();
    }
    if (c == -1 || ISSPACE(c)) {
        if (result == tIVAR) {
            compile_error(PARSER_ARG "`@' without identifiers is not allowed as an instance variable name");
        }
        else {
            compile_error(PARSER_ARG "`@@' without identifiers is not allowed as a class variable name");
        }
        return 0;
    }
    else if (ISDIGIT(c) || !parser_is_identchar()) {
        pushback(c);
        if (result == tIVAR) {
            compile_error(PARSER_ARG "`@%c' is not allowed as an instance variable name", c);
        }
        else {
            compile_error(PARSER_ARG "`@@%c' is not allowed as a class variable name", c);
        }
        return 0;
    }

    if (tokadd_ident(parser, c)) return 0;
    SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_END);
    tokenize_ident(parser, last_state);
    return result;
}

static int
parse_ident(struct parser_params *parser, int c, int cmd_state)
{
    int result = 0;
    int mb = ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT;
    const enum lex_state_e last_state = lex_state;
    ID ident;

    do {
        if (!ISASCII(c)) mb = ENC_CODERANGE_UNKNOWN;
        if (tokadd_mbchar(c) == -1) return 0;
        c = nextc();
    } while (parser_is_identchar());
    if ((c == '!' || c == '?') && !peek('=')) {
        tokadd(c);
    }
    else {
        pushback(c);
    }
    tokfix();

    if (toklast() == '!' || toklast() == '?') {
        result = tFID;
    }
    else {
        if (IS_lex_state(EXPR_FNAME)) {
            register int c = nextc();
            if (c == '=' && !peek('~') && !peek('>') &&
                (!peek('=') || (peek_n('>', 1)))) {
                result = tIDENTIFIER;
                tokadd(c);
                tokfix();
            }
            else {
                pushback(c);
            }
        }
        if (result == 0 && ISUPPER(tok()[0])) {
            result = tCONSTANT;
        }
        else {
            result = tIDENTIFIER;
        }
    }

    if (IS_LABEL_POSSIBLE()) {
        if (IS_LABEL_SUFFIX(0)) {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ARG|EXPR_LABELED);
            nextc();
            set_yylval_name(TOK_INTERN());
            return tLABEL;
        }
    }
    if (mb == ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT && !IS_lex_state(EXPR_DOT)) {
        const struct kwtable *kw;

        /* See if it is a reserved word.  */
        kw = rb_reserved_word(tok(), toklen());
        if (kw) {
            enum lex_state_e state = lex_state;
            SET_LEX_STATE(kw->state);
            if (IS_lex_state_for(state, EXPR_FNAME)) {
                set_yylval_name(rb_intern2(tok(), toklen()));
                return kw->id[0];
            }
            if (IS_lex_state(EXPR_BEG)) {
                command_start = TRUE;
            }
            if (kw->id[0] == keyword_do) {
                if (lpar_beg && lpar_beg == paren_nest) {
                    lpar_beg = 0;
                    --paren_nest;
                    return keyword_do_LAMBDA;
                }
                if (COND_P()) return keyword_do_cond;
                if (CMDARG_P() && !IS_lex_state_for(state, EXPR_CMDARG))
                    return keyword_do_block;
                if (IS_lex_state_for(state, (EXPR_BEG | EXPR_ENDARG)))
                    return keyword_do_block;
                return keyword_do;
            }
            if (IS_lex_state_for(state, (EXPR_BEG | EXPR_LABELED)))
                return kw->id[0];
            else {
                if (kw->id[0] != kw->id[1])
                    SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG | EXPR_LABEL);
                return kw->id[1];
            }
        }
    }

    if (IS_lex_state(EXPR_BEG_ANY | EXPR_ARG_ANY | EXPR_DOT)) {
        if (cmd_state) {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_CMDARG);
        }
        else {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ARG);
        }
    }
    else if (lex_state == EXPR_FNAME) {
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ENDFN);
    }
    else {
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_END);
    }

    ident = tokenize_ident(parser, last_state);
    if (!IS_lex_state_for(last_state, EXPR_DOT|EXPR_FNAME) &&
        (result == tIDENTIFIER) && /* not EXPR_FNAME, not attrasgn */
        lvar_defined(ident)) {
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_END|EXPR_LABEL);
    }
    return result;
}

static int
parser_yylex(struct parser_params *parser)
{
    register int c;
    int space_seen = 0;
    int cmd_state;
    int label;
    enum lex_state_e last_state;
    int fallthru = FALSE;
    int token_seen = parser->token_seen;

    if (lex_strterm) {
        int token;
        if (nd_type(lex_strterm) == NODE_HEREDOC) {
            token = here_document(lex_strterm);
            if (token == tSTRING_END) {
                lex_strterm = 0;
                SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_END);
            }
        }
        else {
            token = parse_string(lex_strterm);
            if ((token == tSTRING_END) && (lex_strterm->nd_func & STR_FUNC_LABEL)) {
                if (((IS_lex_state(EXPR_BEG | EXPR_ENDFN) && !COND_P()) || IS_ARG()) &&
                    IS_LABEL_SUFFIX(0)) {
                    nextc();
                    token = tLABEL_END;
                }
            }
            if (token == tSTRING_END || token == tREGEXP_END || token == tLABEL_END) {
                rb_gc_force_recycle((VALUE)lex_strterm);
                lex_strterm = 0;
                SET_LEX_STATE(token == tLABEL_END ? EXPR_BEG|EXPR_LABEL : EXPR_END);
            }
        }
        return token;
    }
    cmd_state = command_start;
    command_start = FALSE;
    parser->token_seen = TRUE;
  retry:
    last_state = lex_state;
    switch (c = nextc()) {
      case '\0':                /* NUL */
      case '\004':              /* ^D */
      case '\032':              /* ^Z */
      case -1:                  /* end of script. */
        return 0;

        /* white spaces */
      case ' ': case '\t': case '\f': case '\r':
      case '\13': /* '\v' */
        space_seen = 1;
#ifdef RIPPER
        while ((c = nextc())) {
            switch (c) {
              case ' ': case '\t': case '\f': case '\r':
              case '\13': /* '\v' */
                break;
              default:
                goto outofloop;
            }
        }
      outofloop:
        pushback(c);
        dispatch_scan_event(tSP);
#endif
        goto retry;

      case '#':         /* it's a comment */
        parser->token_seen = token_seen;
        /* no magic_comment in shebang line */
        if (!parser_magic_comment(parser, lex_p, lex_pend - lex_p)) {
            if (comment_at_top(parser)) {
                set_file_encoding(parser, lex_p, lex_pend);
            }
        }
        lex_p = lex_pend;
        dispatch_scan_event(tCOMMENT);
        fallthru = TRUE;
        /* fall through */
      case '\n':
        parser->token_seen = token_seen;
        c = (IS_lex_state(EXPR_BEG|EXPR_CLASS|EXPR_FNAME|EXPR_DOT) &&
             !IS_lex_state(EXPR_LABELED));
        if (c || IS_lex_state_all(EXPR_ARG|EXPR_LABELED)) {
            if (!fallthru) {
                dispatch_scan_event(tIGNORED_NL);
            }
            fallthru = FALSE;
            if (!c && parser->in_kwarg) {
                goto normal_newline;
            }
            goto retry;
        }
        while ((c = nextc())) {
            switch (c) {
              case ' ': case '\t': case '\f': case '\r':
              case '\13': /* '\v' */
                space_seen = 1;
                break;
              case '&':
              case '.': {
                dispatch_delayed_token(tIGNORED_NL);
                if (peek('.') == (c == '&')) {
                    pushback(c);
                    dispatch_scan_event(tSP);
                    goto retry;
                }
              }
              default:
                --ruby_sourceline;
                lex_nextline = lex_lastline;
              case -1:          /* EOF no decrement*/
                lex_goto_eol(parser);
#ifdef RIPPER
                if (c != -1) {
                    parser->tokp = lex_p;
                }
#endif
                goto normal_newline;
            }
        }
      normal_newline:
        command_start = TRUE;
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
        return '\n';

      case '*':
        if ((c = nextc()) == '*') {
            if ((c = nextc()) == '=') {
                set_yylval_id(tPOW);
                SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
                return tOP_ASGN;
            }
            pushback(c);
            if (IS_SPCARG(c)) {
                rb_warning0("`**' interpreted as argument prefix");
                c = tDSTAR;
            }
            else if (IS_BEG()) {
                c = tDSTAR;
            }
            else {
                warn_balanced("**", "argument prefix");
                c = tPOW;
            }
        }
        else {
            if (c == '=') {
                set_yylval_id('*');
                SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
                return tOP_ASGN;
            }
            pushback(c);
            if (IS_SPCARG(c)) {
                rb_warning0("`*' interpreted as argument prefix");
                c = tSTAR;
            }
            else if (IS_BEG()) {
                c = tSTAR;
            }
            else {
                warn_balanced("*", "argument prefix");
                c = '*';
            }
        }
        SET_LEX_STATE(IS_AFTER_OPERATOR() ? EXPR_ARG : EXPR_BEG);
        return c;

      case '!':
        c = nextc();
        if (IS_AFTER_OPERATOR()) {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ARG);
            if (c == '@') {
                return '!';
            }
        }
        else {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
        }
        if (c == '=') {
            return tNEQ;
        }
        if (c == '~') {
            return tNMATCH;
        }
        pushback(c);
        return '!';

      case '=':
        if (was_bol()) {
            /* skip embedded rd document */
            if (strncmp(lex_p, "begin", 5) == 0 && ISSPACE(lex_p[5])) {
                int first_p = TRUE;

                lex_goto_eol(parser);
                dispatch_scan_event(tEMBDOC_BEG);
                for (;;) {
                    lex_goto_eol(parser);
                    if (!first_p) {
                        dispatch_scan_event(tEMBDOC);
                    }
                    first_p = FALSE;
                    c = nextc();
                    if (c == -1) {
                        compile_error(PARSER_ARG "embedded document meets end of file");
                        return 0;
                    }
                    if (c != '=') continue;
                    if (c == '=' && strncmp(lex_p, "end", 3) == 0 &&
                        (lex_p + 3 == lex_pend || ISSPACE(lex_p[3]))) {
                        break;
                    }
                }
                lex_goto_eol(parser);
                dispatch_scan_event(tEMBDOC_END);
                goto retry;
            }
        }

        SET_LEX_STATE(IS_AFTER_OPERATOR() ? EXPR_ARG : EXPR_BEG);
        if ((c = nextc()) == '=') {
            if ((c = nextc()) == '=') {
                return tEQQ;
            }
            pushback(c);
            return tEQ;
        }
        if (c == '~') {
            return tMATCH;
        }
        else if (c == '>') {
            return tASSOC;
        }
        pushback(c);
        return '=';

      case '<':
        last_state = lex_state;
        c = nextc();
        if (c == '<' &&
            !IS_lex_state(EXPR_DOT | EXPR_CLASS) &&
            !IS_END() &&
            (!IS_ARG() || IS_lex_state(EXPR_LABELED) || space_seen)) {
            int token = heredoc_identifier();
            if (token) return token;
        }
        if (IS_AFTER_OPERATOR()) {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ARG);
        }
        else {
            if (IS_lex_state(EXPR_CLASS))
                command_start = TRUE;
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
        }
        if (c == '=') {
            if ((c = nextc()) == '>') {
                return tCMP;
            }
            pushback(c);
            return tLEQ;
        }
        if (c == '<') {
            if ((c = nextc()) == '=') {
                set_yylval_id(tLSHFT);
                SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
                return tOP_ASGN;
            }
            pushback(c);
            warn_balanced("<<", "here document");
            return tLSHFT;
        }
        pushback(c);
        return '<';

      case '>':
        SET_LEX_STATE(IS_AFTER_OPERATOR() ? EXPR_ARG : EXPR_BEG);
        if ((c = nextc()) == '=') {
            return tGEQ;
        }
        if (c == '>') {
            if ((c = nextc()) == '=') {
                set_yylval_id(tRSHFT);
                SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
                return tOP_ASGN;
            }
            pushback(c);
            return tRSHFT;
        }
        pushback(c);
        return '>';

      case '"':
        label = (IS_LABEL_POSSIBLE() ? str_label : 0);
        lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_dquote | label, '"', 0);
        return tSTRING_BEG;

      case '`':
        if (IS_lex_state(EXPR_FNAME)) {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ENDFN);
            return c;
        }
        if (IS_lex_state(EXPR_DOT)) {
            if (cmd_state)
                SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_CMDARG);
            else
                SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ARG);
            return c;
        }
        lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_xquote, '`', 0);
        return tXSTRING_BEG;

      case '\'':
        label = (IS_LABEL_POSSIBLE() ? str_label : 0);
        lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_squote | label, '\'', 0);
        return tSTRING_BEG;

      case '?':
        return parse_qmark(parser);

      case '&':
        if ((c = nextc()) == '&') {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
            if ((c = nextc()) == '=') {
                set_yylval_id(tANDOP);
                SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
                return tOP_ASGN;
            }
            pushback(c);
            return tANDOP;
        }
        else if (c == '=') {
            set_yylval_id('&');
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
            return tOP_ASGN;
        }
        else if (c == '.') {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_DOT);
            return tANDDOT;
        }
        pushback(c);
        if (IS_SPCARG(c)) {
            rb_warning0("`&' interpreted as argument prefix");
            c = tAMPER;
        }
        else if (IS_BEG()) {
            c = tAMPER;
        }
        else {
            warn_balanced("&", "argument prefix");
            c = '&';
        }
        SET_LEX_STATE(IS_AFTER_OPERATOR() ? EXPR_ARG : EXPR_BEG);
        return c;

      case '|':
        if ((c = nextc()) == '|') {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
            if ((c = nextc()) == '=') {
                set_yylval_id(tOROP);
                SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
                return tOP_ASGN;
            }
            pushback(c);
            return tOROP;
        }
        if (c == '=') {
            set_yylval_id('|');
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
            return tOP_ASGN;
        }
        SET_LEX_STATE(IS_AFTER_OPERATOR() ? EXPR_ARG : EXPR_BEG|EXPR_LABEL);
        pushback(c);
        return '|';

      case '+':
        c = nextc();
        if (IS_AFTER_OPERATOR()) {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ARG);
            if (c == '@') {
                return tUPLUS;
            }
            pushback(c);
            return '+';
        }
        if (c == '=') {
            set_yylval_id('+');
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
            return tOP_ASGN;
        }
        if (IS_BEG() || (IS_SPCARG(c) && arg_ambiguous('+'))) {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
            pushback(c);
            if (c != -1 && ISDIGIT(c)) {
                return parse_numeric(parser, '+');
            }
            return tUPLUS;
        }
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
        pushback(c);
        warn_balanced("+", "unary operator");
        return '+';

      case '-':
        c = nextc();
        if (IS_AFTER_OPERATOR()) {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ARG);
            if (c == '@') {
                return tUMINUS;
            }
            pushback(c);
            return '-';
        }
        if (c == '=') {
            set_yylval_id('-');
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
            return tOP_ASGN;
        }
        if (c == '>') {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ENDFN);
            token_info_push("->");
            return tLAMBDA;
        }
        if (IS_BEG() || (IS_SPCARG(c) && arg_ambiguous('-'))) {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
            pushback(c);
            if (c != -1 && ISDIGIT(c)) {
                return tUMINUS_NUM;
            }
            return tUMINUS;
        }
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
        pushback(c);
        warn_balanced("-", "unary operator");
        return '-';

      case '.':
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
        if ((c = nextc()) == '.') {
            if ((c = nextc()) == '.') {
                return tDOT3;
            }
            pushback(c);
            return tDOT2;
        }
        pushback(c);
        if (c != -1 && ISDIGIT(c)) {
            yyerror("no .<digit> floating literal anymore; put 0 before dot");
        }
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_DOT);
        return '.';

      case '0': case '1': case '2': case '3': case '4':
      case '5': case '6': case '7': case '8': case '9':
        return parse_numeric(parser, c);

      case ')':
      case ']':
        paren_nest--;
      case '}':
        COND_LEXPOP();
        CMDARG_LEXPOP();
        if (c == ')')
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ENDFN);
        else
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ENDARG);
        if (c == '}') {
            if (!brace_nest--) c = tSTRING_DEND;
        }
        return c;

      case ':':
        c = nextc();
        if (c == ':') {
            if (IS_BEG() || IS_lex_state(EXPR_CLASS) || IS_SPCARG(-1)) {
                SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
                return tCOLON3;
            }
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_DOT);
            return tCOLON2;
        }
        if (IS_END() || ISSPACE(c) || c == '#') {
            pushback(c);
            warn_balanced(":", "symbol literal");
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
            return ':';
        }
        switch (c) {
          case '\'':
            lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_ssym, c, 0);
            break;
          case '"':
            lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_dsym, c, 0);
            break;
          default:
            pushback(c);
            break;
        }
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_FNAME);
        return tSYMBEG;

      case '/':
        if (IS_BEG()) {
            lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_regexp, '/', 0);
            return tREGEXP_BEG;
        }
        if ((c = nextc()) == '=') {
            set_yylval_id('/');
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
            return tOP_ASGN;
        }
        pushback(c);
        if (IS_SPCARG(c)) {
            (void)arg_ambiguous('/');
            lex_strterm = NEW_STRTERM(str_regexp, '/', 0);
            return tREGEXP_BEG;
        }
        SET_LEX_STATE(IS_AFTER_OPERATOR() ? EXPR_ARG : EXPR_BEG);
        warn_balanced("/", "regexp literal");
        return '/';

      case '^':
        if ((c = nextc()) == '=') {
            set_yylval_id('^');
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
            return tOP_ASGN;
        }
        SET_LEX_STATE(IS_AFTER_OPERATOR() ? EXPR_ARG : EXPR_BEG);
        pushback(c);
        return '^';

      case ';':
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
        command_start = TRUE;
        return ';';

      case ',':
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG|EXPR_LABEL);
        return ',';

      case '~':
        if (IS_AFTER_OPERATOR()) {
            if ((c = nextc()) != '@') {
                pushback(c);
            }
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ARG);
        }
        else {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
        }
        return '~';

      case '(':
        if (IS_BEG()) {
            c = tLPAREN;
        }
        else if (IS_SPCARG(-1)) {
            c = tLPAREN_ARG;
        }
        paren_nest++;
        COND_PUSH(0);
        CMDARG_PUSH(0);
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG|EXPR_LABEL);
        return c;

      case '[':
        paren_nest++;
        if (IS_AFTER_OPERATOR()) {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_ARG);
            if ((c = nextc()) == ']') {
                if ((c = nextc()) == '=') {
                    return tASET;
                }
                pushback(c);
                return tAREF;
            }
            pushback(c);
            lex_state |= EXPR_LABEL;
            return '[';
        }
        else if (IS_BEG()) {
            c = tLBRACK;
        }
        else if (IS_ARG() && (space_seen || IS_lex_state(EXPR_LABELED))) {
            c = tLBRACK;
        }
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG|EXPR_LABEL);
        COND_PUSH(0);
        CMDARG_PUSH(0);
        return c;

      case '{':
        ++brace_nest;
        if (lpar_beg && lpar_beg == paren_nest) {
            SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
            lpar_beg = 0;
            --paren_nest;
            COND_PUSH(0);
            CMDARG_PUSH(0);
            return tLAMBEG;
        }
        if (IS_lex_state(EXPR_LABELED))
            c = tLBRACE;      /* hash */
        else if (IS_lex_state(EXPR_ARG_ANY | EXPR_END | EXPR_ENDFN))
            c = '{';          /* block (primary) */
        else if (IS_lex_state(EXPR_ENDARG))
            c = tLBRACE_ARG;  /* block (expr) */
        else
            c = tLBRACE;      /* hash */
        COND_PUSH(0);
        CMDARG_PUSH(0);
        SET_LEX_STATE(EXPR_BEG);
        if (c != tLBRACE_ARG) lex_state |= EXPR_LABEL;
        if (c != tLBRACE) command_start = TRUE;
        return c;

      case '\\':
        c = nextc();
        if (c == '\n') {
            space_seen = 1;
            dispatch_scan_event(tSP);
            goto retry; /* skip \\n */
        }
        pushback(c);
        return '\\';

      case '%':
        return parse_percent(parser, space_seen, last_state);

      case '$':
        return parse_gvar(parser, last_state);

      case '@':
        return parse_atmark(parser, last_state);

      case '_':
        if (was_bol() && whole_match_p("__END__", 7, 0)) {
            ruby__end__seen = 1;
            parser->eofp = 1;
#ifndef RIPPER
            return -1;
#else
            lex_goto_eol(parser);
            dispatch_scan_event(k__END__);
            return 0;
#endif
        }
        newtok();
        break;

      default:
        if (!parser_is_identchar()) {
            compile_error(PARSER_ARG  "Invalid char `\\x%02X' in expression", c);
            goto retry;
        }

        newtok();
        break;
    }

    return parse_ident(parser, c, cmd_state);
}

static int
yylex(YYSTYPE *lval, struct parser_params *parser)
{
    int t;

    parser->lval = lval;
    lval->val = Qundef;
    t = parser_yylex(parser);
    if (has_delayed_token())
        dispatch_delayed_token(t);
    else if (t != 0)
        dispatch_scan_event(t);

    return t;
}

#ifndef RIPPER
static NODE*
node_newnode(struct parser_params *parser, enum node_type type, VALUE a0, VALUE a1, VALUE a2)
{
    NODE *n = (rb_node_newnode)(type, a0, a1, a2);
    nd_set_line(n, ruby_sourceline);
    return n;
}

static enum node_type
nodetype(NODE *node)                    /* for debug */
{
    return (enum node_type)nd_type(node);
}

static int
nodeline(NODE *node)
{
    return nd_line(node);
}

static NODE*
newline_node(NODE *node)
{
    if (node) {
        node = remove_begin(node);
        node->flags |= NODE_FL_NEWLINE;
    }
    return node;
}

static void
fixpos(NODE *node, NODE *orig)
{
    if (!node) return;
    if (!orig) return;
    if (orig == (NODE*)1) return;
    nd_set_line(node, nd_line(orig));
}

static void
parser_warning(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *node, const char *mesg)
{
    rb_compile_warning(ruby_sourcefile, nd_line(node), "%s", mesg);
}
#define parser_warning(node, mesg) parser_warning(parser, (node), (mesg))

static void
parser_warn(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *node, const char *mesg)
{
    rb_compile_warn(ruby_sourcefile, nd_line(node), "%s", mesg);
}
#define parser_warn(node, mesg) parser_warn(parser, (node), (mesg))

static NODE*
block_append_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *head, NODE *tail)
{
    NODE *end, *h = head, *nd;

    if (tail == 0) return head;

    if (h == 0) return tail;
    switch (nd_type(h)) {
      case NODE_LIT:
      case NODE_STR:
      case NODE_SELF:
      case NODE_TRUE:
      case NODE_FALSE:
      case NODE_NIL:
        parser_warning(h, "unused literal ignored");
        return tail;
      default:
        h = end = NEW_BLOCK(head);
        end->nd_end = end;
        fixpos(end, head);
        head = end;
        break;
      case NODE_BLOCK:
        end = h->nd_end;
        break;
    }

    nd = end->nd_head;
    switch (nd_type(nd)) {
      case NODE_RETURN:
      case NODE_BREAK:
      case NODE_NEXT:
      case NODE_REDO:
      case NODE_RETRY:
        if (RTEST(ruby_verbose)) {
            parser_warning(tail, "statement not reached");
        }
        break;

      default:
        break;
    }

    if (nd_type(tail) != NODE_BLOCK) {
        tail = NEW_BLOCK(tail);
        tail->nd_end = tail;
    }
    end->nd_next = tail;
    h->nd_end = tail->nd_end;
    return head;
}

/* append item to the list */
static NODE*
list_append_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *list, NODE *item)
{
    NODE *last;

    if (list == 0) return NEW_LIST(item);
    if (list->nd_next) {
        last = list->nd_next->nd_end;
    }
    else {
        last = list;
    }

    list->nd_alen += 1;
    last->nd_next = NEW_LIST(item);
    list->nd_next->nd_end = last->nd_next;
    return list;
}

/* concat two lists */
static NODE*
list_concat(NODE *head, NODE *tail)
{
    NODE *last;

    if (head->nd_next) {
        last = head->nd_next->nd_end;
    }
    else {
        last = head;
    }

    head->nd_alen += tail->nd_alen;
    last->nd_next = tail;
    if (tail->nd_next) {
        head->nd_next->nd_end = tail->nd_next->nd_end;
    }
    else {
        head->nd_next->nd_end = tail;
    }

    return head;
}

static int
literal_concat0(struct parser_params *parser, VALUE head, VALUE tail)
{
    if (NIL_P(tail)) return 1;
    if (!rb_enc_compatible(head, tail)) {
        compile_error(PARSER_ARG "string literal encodings differ (%s / %s)",
                      rb_enc_name(rb_enc_get(head)),
                      rb_enc_name(rb_enc_get(tail)));
        rb_str_resize(head, 0);
        rb_str_resize(tail, 0);
        return 0;
    }
    rb_str_buf_append(head, tail);
    return 1;
}

/* concat two string literals */
static NODE *
literal_concat_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *head, NODE *tail)
{
    enum node_type htype;
    NODE *headlast;
    VALUE lit;

    if (!head) return tail;
    if (!tail) return head;

    htype = nd_type(head);
    if (htype == NODE_EVSTR) {
        NODE *node = NEW_DSTR(STR_NEW0());
        head = list_append(node, head);
        htype = NODE_DSTR;
    }
    if (heredoc_indent > 0) {
        switch (htype) {
          case NODE_STR:
            nd_set_type(head, NODE_DSTR);
          case NODE_DSTR:
            return list_append(head, tail);
          default:
            break;
        }
    }
    switch (nd_type(tail)) {
      case NODE_STR:
        if (htype == NODE_DSTR && (headlast = head->nd_next->nd_end->nd_head) &&
            nd_type(headlast) == NODE_STR) {
            htype = NODE_STR;
            lit = headlast->nd_lit;
        }
        else {
            lit = head->nd_lit;
        }
        if (htype == NODE_STR) {
            if (!literal_concat0(parser, lit, tail->nd_lit)) {
              error:
                rb_gc_force_recycle((VALUE)head);
                rb_gc_force_recycle((VALUE)tail);
                return 0;
            }
            rb_gc_force_recycle((VALUE)tail);
        }
        else {
            list_append(head, tail);
        }
        break;

      case NODE_DSTR:
        if (htype == NODE_STR) {
            if (!literal_concat0(parser, head->nd_lit, tail->nd_lit))
                goto error;
            tail->nd_lit = head->nd_lit;
            rb_gc_force_recycle((VALUE)head);
            head = tail;
        }
        else if (NIL_P(tail->nd_lit)) {
          append:
            head->nd_alen += tail->nd_alen - 1;
            head->nd_next->nd_end->nd_next = tail->nd_next;
            head->nd_next->nd_end = tail->nd_next->nd_end;
            rb_gc_force_recycle((VALUE)tail);
        }
        else if (htype == NODE_DSTR && (headlast = head->nd_next->nd_end->nd_head) &&
                 nd_type(headlast) == NODE_STR) {
            lit = headlast->nd_lit;
            if (!literal_concat0(parser, lit, tail->nd_lit))
                goto error;
            tail->nd_lit = Qnil;
            goto append;
        }
        else {
            nd_set_type(tail, NODE_ARRAY);
            tail->nd_head = NEW_STR(tail->nd_lit);
            list_concat(head, tail);
        }
        break;

      case NODE_EVSTR:
        if (htype == NODE_STR) {
            nd_set_type(head, NODE_DSTR);
            head->nd_alen = 1;
        }
        list_append(head, tail);
        break;
    }
    return head;
}

static NODE *
evstr2dstr_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *node)
{
    if (nd_type(node) == NODE_EVSTR) {
        node = list_append(NEW_DSTR(STR_NEW0()), node);
    }
    return node;
}

static NODE *
new_evstr_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *node)
{
    NODE *head = node;

    if (node) {
        switch (nd_type(node)) {
          case NODE_STR: case NODE_DSTR: case NODE_EVSTR:
            return node;
        }
    }
    return NEW_EVSTR(head);
}

static NODE *
call_bin_op_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *recv, ID id, NODE *arg1)
{
    value_expr(recv);
    value_expr(arg1);
    return NEW_CALL(recv, id, NEW_LIST(arg1));
}

static NODE *
call_uni_op_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *recv, ID id)
{
    value_expr(recv);
    return NEW_CALL(recv, id, 0);
}

static NODE*
match_op_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *node1, NODE *node2)
{
    value_expr(node1);
    value_expr(node2);
    if (node1) {
        switch (nd_type(node1)) {
          case NODE_DREGX:
          case NODE_DREGX_ONCE:
            return NEW_MATCH2(node1, node2);

          case NODE_LIT:
            if (RB_TYPE_P(node1->nd_lit, T_REGEXP)) {
                return NEW_MATCH2(node1, node2);
            }
        }
    }

    if (node2) {
        switch (nd_type(node2)) {
          case NODE_DREGX:
          case NODE_DREGX_ONCE:
            return NEW_MATCH3(node2, node1);

          case NODE_LIT:
            if (RB_TYPE_P(node2->nd_lit, T_REGEXP)) {
                return NEW_MATCH3(node2, node1);
            }
        }
    }

    return NEW_CALL(node1, tMATCH, NEW_LIST(node2));
}

# if WARN_PAST_SCOPE
static int
past_dvar_p(struct parser_params *parser, ID id)
{
    struct vtable *past = lvtbl->past;
    while (past) {
        if (vtable_included(past, id)) return 1;
        past = past->prev;
    }
    return 0;
}
# endif

static NODE*
gettable_gen(struct parser_params *parser, ID id)
{
    switch (id) {
      case keyword_self:
        return NEW_SELF();
      case keyword_nil:
        return NEW_NIL();
      case keyword_true:
        return NEW_TRUE();
      case keyword_false:
        return NEW_FALSE();
      case keyword__FILE__:
        return NEW_STR(rb_str_dup(ruby_sourcefile_string));
      case keyword__LINE__:
        return NEW_LIT(INT2FIX(tokline));
      case keyword__ENCODING__:
        return NEW_LIT(rb_enc_from_encoding(current_enc));
    }
    switch (id_type(id)) {
      case ID_LOCAL:
        if (dyna_in_block() && dvar_defined(id)) {
            if (id == current_arg) {
                rb_warn1("circular argument reference - %"PRIsWARN, rb_id2str(id));
            }
            return NEW_DVAR(id);
        }
        if (local_id(id)) {
            if (id == current_arg) {
                rb_warn1("circular argument reference - %"PRIsWARN, rb_id2str(id));
            }
            return NEW_LVAR(id);
        }
# if WARN_PAST_SCOPE
        if (!in_defined && RTEST(ruby_verbose) && past_dvar_p(parser, id)) {
            rb_warning1("possible reference to past scope - %"PRIsWARN, rb_id2str(id));
        }
# endif
        /* method call without arguments */
        return NEW_VCALL(id);
      case ID_GLOBAL:
        return NEW_GVAR(id);
      case ID_INSTANCE:
        return NEW_IVAR(id);
      case ID_CONST:
        return NEW_CONST(id);
      case ID_CLASS:
        return NEW_CVAR(id);
    }
    compile_error(PARSER_ARG "identifier %"PRIsVALUE" is not valid to get", rb_id2str(id));
    return 0;
}

static NODE *
kwd_append(NODE *kwlist, NODE *kw)
{
    if (kwlist) {
        NODE *kws = kwlist;
        while (kws->nd_next) {
            kws = kws->nd_next;
        }
        kws->nd_next = kw;
    }
    return kwlist;
}
#else  /* !RIPPER */
static int
id_is_var_gen(struct parser_params *parser, ID id)
{
    if (is_notop_id(id)) {
        switch (id & ID_SCOPE_MASK) {
          case ID_GLOBAL: case ID_INSTANCE: case ID_CONST: case ID_CLASS:
            return 1;
          case ID_LOCAL:
            if (dyna_in_block() && dvar_defined(id)) return 1;
            if (local_id(id)) return 1;
            /* method call without arguments */
            return 0;
        }
    }
    compile_error(PARSER_ARG "identifier %s is not valid to get", rb_id2str(id));
    return 0;
}
#endif /* !RIPPER */

static const char lex_state_names[][13] = {
    "EXPR_BEG",    "EXPR_END",    "EXPR_ENDARG", "EXPR_ENDFN",  "EXPR_ARG",
    "EXPR_CMDARG", "EXPR_MID",    "EXPR_FNAME",  "EXPR_DOT",    "EXPR_CLASS",
    "EXPR_LABEL",  "EXPR_LABELED","EXPR_FITEM",
};

static VALUE
append_lex_state_name(enum lex_state_e state, VALUE buf)
{
    int i, sep = 0;
    unsigned int mask = 1;
    static const char none[] = "EXPR_NONE";

    for (i = 0; i < EXPR_MAX_STATE; ++i, mask <<= 1) {
        if ((unsigned)state & mask) {
            if (sep) {
                rb_str_cat(buf, "|", 1);
            }
            sep = 1;
            rb_str_cat_cstr(buf, lex_state_names[i]);
        }
    }
    if (!sep) {
        rb_str_cat(buf, none, sizeof(none)-1);
    }
    return buf;
}

static enum lex_state_e
trace_lex_state(enum lex_state_e from, enum lex_state_e to, int line)
{
    VALUE mesg;
    mesg = rb_str_new_cstr("lex_state: ");
    append_lex_state_name(from, mesg);
    rb_str_cat_cstr(mesg, " -> ");
    append_lex_state_name(to, mesg);
    rb_str_catf(mesg, " at line %d\n", line);
    rb_io_write(rb_stdout, mesg);
    return to;
}

static void
show_bitstack(stack_type stack, const char *name, int line)
{
    VALUE mesg = rb_sprintf("%s: ", name);
    if (stack == 0) {
        rb_str_cat_cstr(mesg, "0");
    }
    else {
        stack_type mask = (stack_type)1U << (CHAR_BIT * sizeof(stack_type) - 1);
        for (; mask && !(stack & mask); mask >>= 1) continue;
        for (; mask; mask >>= 1) rb_str_cat(mesg, stack & mask ? "1" : "0", 1);
    }
    rb_str_catf(mesg, " at line %d\n", line);
    rb_io_write(rb_stdout, mesg);
}

#ifdef RIPPER
static VALUE
assignable_gen(struct parser_params *parser, VALUE lhs)
#else
static NODE*
assignable_gen(struct parser_params *parser, ID id, NODE *val)
#endif
{
#ifdef RIPPER
    ID id = get_id(lhs);
# define assignable_result(x) get_value(lhs)
# define parser_yyerror(parser, x) (dispatch1(assign_error, lhs), ripper_error())
#else
# define assignable_result(x) (x)
#endif
    if (!id) return assignable_result(0);
    switch (id) {
      case keyword_self:
        yyerror("Can't change the value of self");
        goto error;
      case keyword_nil:
        yyerror("Can't assign to nil");
        goto error;
      case keyword_true:
        yyerror("Can't assign to true");
        goto error;
      case keyword_false:
        yyerror("Can't assign to false");
        goto error;
      case keyword__FILE__:
        yyerror("Can't assign to __FILE__");
        goto error;
      case keyword__LINE__:
        yyerror("Can't assign to __LINE__");
        goto error;
      case keyword__ENCODING__:
        yyerror("Can't assign to __ENCODING__");
        goto error;
    }
    switch (id_type(id)) {
      case ID_LOCAL:
        if (dyna_in_block()) {
            if (dvar_curr(id)) {
                return assignable_result(NEW_DASGN_CURR(id, val));
            }
            else if (dvar_defined(id)) {
                return assignable_result(NEW_DASGN(id, val));
            }
            else if (local_id(id)) {
                return assignable_result(NEW_LASGN(id, val));
            }
            else {
                dyna_var(id);
                return assignable_result(NEW_DASGN_CURR(id, val));
            }
        }
        else {
            if (!local_id(id)) {
                local_var(id);
            }
            return assignable_result(NEW_LASGN(id, val));
        }
        break;
      case ID_GLOBAL:
        return assignable_result(NEW_GASGN(id, val));
      case ID_INSTANCE:
        return assignable_result(NEW_IASGN(id, val));
      case ID_CONST:
        if (!in_def && !in_single)
            return assignable_result(NEW_CDECL(id, val, 0));
        yyerror("dynamic constant assignment");
        break;
      case ID_CLASS:
        return assignable_result(NEW_CVASGN(id, val));
      default:
        compile_error(PARSER_ARG "identifier %"PRIsVALUE" is not valid to set", rb_id2str(id));
    }
  error:
    return assignable_result(0);
#undef assignable_result
#undef parser_yyerror
}

static int
is_private_local_id(ID name)
{
    VALUE s;
    if (name == idUScore) return 1;
    if (!is_local_id(name)) return 0;
    s = rb_id2str(name);
    if (!s) return 0;
    return RSTRING_PTR(s)[0] == '_';
}

#define LVAR_USED ((ID)1 << (sizeof(ID) * CHAR_BIT - 1))

static int
shadowing_lvar_0(struct parser_params *parser, ID name)
{
    if (is_private_local_id(name)) return 1;
    if (dyna_in_block()) {
        if (dvar_curr(name)) {
            yyerror("duplicated argument name");
        }
        else if (dvar_defined_get(name) || local_id(name)) {
            rb_warning1("shadowing outer local variable - %"PRIsWARN, rb_id2str(name));
            vtable_add(lvtbl->vars, name);
            if (lvtbl->used) {
                vtable_add(lvtbl->used, (ID)ruby_sourceline | LVAR_USED);
            }
            return 0;
        }
    }
    else {
        if (local_id(name)) {
            yyerror("duplicated argument name");
        }
    }
    return 1;
}

static ID
shadowing_lvar_gen(struct parser_params *parser, ID name)
{
    shadowing_lvar_0(parser, name);
    return name;
}

static void
new_bv_gen(struct parser_params *parser, ID name)
{
    if (!name) return;
    if (!is_local_id(name)) {
        compile_error(PARSER_ARG "invalid local variable - %"PRIsVALUE,
                      rb_id2str(name));
        return;
    }
    if (!shadowing_lvar_0(parser, name)) return;
    dyna_var(name);
}

#ifndef RIPPER
static NODE *
aryset_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *recv, NODE *idx)
{
    return NEW_ATTRASGN(recv, tASET, idx);
}

static void
block_dup_check_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *node1, NODE *node2)
{
    if (node2 && node1 && nd_type(node1) == NODE_BLOCK_PASS) {
        compile_error(PARSER_ARG "both block arg and actual block given");
    }
}

static NODE *
attrset_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *recv, ID atype, ID id)
{
    if (!CALL_Q_P(atype)) id = rb_id_attrset(id);
    return NEW_ATTRASGN(recv, id, 0);
}

static void
rb_backref_error_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *node)
{
    switch (nd_type(node)) {
      case NODE_NTH_REF:
        compile_error(PARSER_ARG "Can't set variable $%ld", node->nd_nth);
        break;
      case NODE_BACK_REF:
        compile_error(PARSER_ARG "Can't set variable $%c", (int)node->nd_nth);
        break;
    }
}

static NODE *
arg_concat_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *node1, NODE *node2)
{
    if (!node2) return node1;
    switch (nd_type(node1)) {
      case NODE_BLOCK_PASS:
        if (node1->nd_head)
            node1->nd_head = arg_concat(node1->nd_head, node2);
        else
            node1->nd_head = NEW_LIST(node2);
        return node1;
      case NODE_ARGSPUSH:
        if (nd_type(node2) != NODE_ARRAY) break;
        node1->nd_body = list_concat(NEW_LIST(node1->nd_body), node2);
        nd_set_type(node1, NODE_ARGSCAT);
        return node1;
      case NODE_ARGSCAT:
        if (nd_type(node2) != NODE_ARRAY ||
            nd_type(node1->nd_body) != NODE_ARRAY) break;
        node1->nd_body = list_concat(node1->nd_body, node2);
        return node1;
    }
    return NEW_ARGSCAT(node1, node2);
}

static NODE *
arg_append_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *node1, NODE *node2)
{
    if (!node1) return NEW_LIST(node2);
    switch (nd_type(node1))  {
      case NODE_ARRAY:
        return list_append(node1, node2);
      case NODE_BLOCK_PASS:
        node1->nd_head = arg_append(node1->nd_head, node2);
        return node1;
      case NODE_ARGSPUSH:
        node1->nd_body = list_append(NEW_LIST(node1->nd_body), node2);
        nd_set_type(node1, NODE_ARGSCAT);
        return node1;
    }
    return NEW_ARGSPUSH(node1, node2);
}

static NODE *
splat_array(NODE* node)
{
    if (nd_type(node) == NODE_SPLAT) node = node->nd_head;
    if (nd_type(node) == NODE_ARRAY) return node;
    return 0;
}

static NODE *
node_assign_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *lhs, NODE *rhs)
{
    if (!lhs) return 0;

    switch (nd_type(lhs)) {
      case NODE_GASGN:
      case NODE_IASGN:
      case NODE_IASGN2:
      case NODE_LASGN:
      case NODE_DASGN:
      case NODE_DASGN_CURR:
      case NODE_MASGN:
      case NODE_CDECL:
      case NODE_CVASGN:
        lhs->nd_value = rhs;
        break;

      case NODE_ATTRASGN:
      case NODE_CALL:
        lhs->nd_args = arg_append(lhs->nd_args, rhs);
        break;

      default:
        /* should not happen */
        break;
    }

    return lhs;
}

static int
value_expr_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *node)
{
    int cond = 0;

    if (!node) {
        rb_warning0("empty expression");
    }
    while (node) {
        switch (nd_type(node)) {
          case NODE_RETURN:
          case NODE_BREAK:
          case NODE_NEXT:
          case NODE_REDO:
          case NODE_RETRY:
            if (!cond) yyerror("void value expression");
            /* or "control never reach"? */
            return FALSE;

          case NODE_BLOCK:
            while (node->nd_next) {
                node = node->nd_next;
            }
            node = node->nd_head;
            break;

          case NODE_BEGIN:
            node = node->nd_body;
            break;

          case NODE_IF:
            if (!node->nd_body) {
                node = node->nd_else;
                break;
            }
            else if (!node->nd_else) {
                node = node->nd_body;
                break;
            }
            if (!value_expr(node->nd_body)) return FALSE;
            node = node->nd_else;
            break;

          case NODE_AND:
          case NODE_OR:
            cond = 1;
            node = node->nd_2nd;
            break;

          default:
            return TRUE;
        }
    }

    return TRUE;
}

static void
void_expr_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *node)
{
    const char *useless = 0;

    if (!RTEST(ruby_verbose)) return;

    if (!node) return;
    switch (nd_type(node)) {
      case NODE_CALL:
        switch (node->nd_mid) {
          case '+':
          case '-':
          case '*':
          case '/':
          case '%':
          case tPOW:
          case tUPLUS:
          case tUMINUS:
          case '|':
          case '^':
          case '&':
          case tCMP:
          case '>':
          case tGEQ:
          case '<':
          case tLEQ:
          case tEQ:
          case tNEQ:
            useless = rb_id2name(node->nd_mid);
            break;
        }
        break;

      case NODE_LVAR:
      case NODE_DVAR:
      case NODE_GVAR:
      case NODE_IVAR:
      case NODE_CVAR:
      case NODE_NTH_REF:
      case NODE_BACK_REF:
        useless = "a variable";
        break;
      case NODE_CONST:
        useless = "a constant";
        break;
      case NODE_LIT:
      case NODE_STR:
      case NODE_DSTR:
      case NODE_DREGX:
      case NODE_DREGX_ONCE:
        useless = "a literal";
        break;
      case NODE_COLON2:
      case NODE_COLON3:
        useless = "::";
        break;
      case NODE_DOT2:
        useless = "..";
        break;
      case NODE_DOT3:
        useless = "...";
        break;
      case NODE_SELF:
        useless = "self";
        break;
      case NODE_NIL:
        useless = "nil";
        break;
      case NODE_TRUE:
        useless = "true";
        break;
      case NODE_FALSE:
        useless = "false";
        break;
      case NODE_DEFINED:
        useless = "defined?";
        break;
    }

    if (useless) {
        rb_warn1L(nd_line(node), "possibly useless use of %s in void context", WARN_S(useless));
    }
}

static void
void_stmts_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE *node)
{
    if (!RTEST(ruby_verbose)) return;
    if (!node) return;
    if (nd_type(node) != NODE_BLOCK) return;

    for (;;) {
        if (!node->nd_next) return;
        void_expr0(node->nd_head);
        node = node->nd_next;
    }
}

static NODE *
remove_begin(NODE *node)
{
    NODE **n = &node, *n1 = node;
    while (n1 && nd_type(n1) == NODE_BEGIN && n1->nd_body) {
        *n = n1 = n1->nd_body;
    }
    return node;
}

static NODE *
remove_begin_all(NODE *node)
{
    NODE **n = &node, *n1 = node;
    while (n1 && nd_type(n1) == NODE_BEGIN) {
        *n = n1 = n1->nd_body;
    }
    return node;
}

static void
reduce_nodes_gen(struct parser_params *parser, NODE **body)
{
    NODE *node = *body;

    if (!node) {
        *body = NEW_NIL();
        return;
    }
#define subnodes(n1, n2) \
    ((!node->n1) ? (node->n2 ? (body = &node->n2, 1) : 0) : \
     (!node->n2) ? (body = &node->n1, 1) : \
     (reduce_nodes(&node->n1), body = &node->n2, 1))

    while (node) {
        int newline = (int)(node->flags & NODE_FL_NEWLINE);
        switch (nd_type(node)) {
          end:
          case NODE_NIL:
            *body = 0;
            return;
          case NODE_RETURN:
            *body = node = node->nd_stts;
            if (newline && node) node->flags |= NODE_FL_NEWLINE;
            continue;
          case NODE_BEGIN:
            *body = node = node->nd_body;
            if (newline && node) node->flags |= NODE_FL_NEWLINE;
            continue;
          case NODE_BLOCK:
            body = &node->nd_end->nd_head;
            break;
          case NODE_IF:
            if (subnodes(nd_body, nd_else)) break;
            return;
          case NODE_CASE:
            body = &node->nd_body;
            break;
          case NODE_WHEN:
            if (!subnodes(nd_body, nd_next)) goto end;
            break;
          case NODE_ENSURE:
            if (!subnodes(nd_head, nd_resq)) goto end;
            break;
          case NODE_RESCUE:
            if (node->nd_else) {
                body = &node->nd_resq;
                break;
            }
            if (!subnodes(nd_head, nd_resq)) goto end;
            break;
          default:
            return;
        }
        node = *body;
        if (newline && node) node->flags |= NODE_FL_NEWLINE;
    }

#undef subnodes
}

static int
is_static_content(NODE *node)
{
    if (!node) return 1;
    switch (nd_type(node)) {
      case NODE_HASH:
        if (!(node = node->nd_head)) break;
      case NODE_ARRAY:
        do {
            if (!is_static_content(node->nd_head)) return 0;
        } while ((node = node->nd_next) != 0);
      case NODE_LIT:
      case NODE_STR<